Horizons, Volume 6

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    Front and Back Cover
    ( 2021-12-07)
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    Rewriting The Vegetarian: In Each and Every Dream
    ( 2021-12-07) Jeon, Young Hee
    As a final project for EALL 360, “Literary Traditions of East Asia,” I’ve attempted to rewrite a small section of the novel The Vegetarian, written by Han Kang, the winner of 2016 Man Booker International Prize. My rewriting “In Each and Every Dream” is my reflection on one of the questions raised by Han throughout the story, that is, the “(im)possibility of innocence.”
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    From "Love Bites" to Cannibals: How American Media Shaped the Cultural Acceptance of Serial Killers
    ( 2021-12-07) Pearson, Elisabeth
    Throughout history, the fascination with true crime has been an ever-present theme. However, with the rise of media and nationwide news outlets in the twentieth century, true crime grew in not only popularity but in its social acceptance of criminals. How did the figure of popular serial killers emerge, and why were some men such as Ted Bundy able to achieve fame and recognition, while others never did? With changes to media such as the introduction of televised nationwide news, crime news was able to spread at a much more rapid pace. True crime spread to a national and, in some cases, international level, increasing its interest and intrigue. The fear of a new type of criminal brought not only public attention to their crimes but a new level of fear and attention. With a growing interest and understanding of the different minds and people at play in a serial killer case, some serial killers have been able to achieve an inordinate amount of fame and recognition from their crimes. What factors play into the captivation that some serial killers had over others and what role did the media play in their portrayals of these killers? While examining the use of media representation and its involvement in portraying specific serial killers, trends become clear with how and why they were launched into infamy. Whether it be public stereotypes or breaking of societal norms, serial killers and their apparent public appeal, have created a new category of who can achieve fame.
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    Species Characterization and Hybrid Investigation in Juvenile Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus spp.) by Genetic Sequencing
    ( 2021-12-07) Loustalot, Malia
    Identifying species accurately can be difficult. This can be especially true in groups that have many species, or multiple species that are similar in how they look or where they live. The focus of this study is on lizards in the genus (group marked by similar characteristics) Sceloporus, or spiny lizards, which is the most diverse genus in the family Phrynosomatidae. Given the number of species in the genus, and areas of range overlap, species identification can be difficult. Here I demonstrate how molecular tools can be used to identify juvenile (individuals who have not yet met sexual maturity) and hatchling Sceloporus species using different sources of molecular data, and how they can be analyzed to reliably identify unknown species and investigate possible novel hybrid individuals. I sequenced nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and analyzed genomic-scale data to inform species identification in this group. Genetic sequencing of a mitochondrial and nuclear gene revealed the identity of the unknown species as well as the identity of a possible novel hybrid (offspring produced from parents of different species), since different species have subtle differences in their gene sequences. The most parsimonious conclusion from these results is the unknown, possible hybrid, individual is a Sagebrush lizard (S. graciosus) given that both gene trees place the unknown specimen within this group, rather than one gene from each of the two species. These methods and techniques can be used in the genus broadly to reliably identify species at stages of development when morphological features unique to each species have not yet developed. The consistent data produced indicates the usefulness of these methods in future studies where species identity is in question, and relatively inexpensive and straightforward single-gene phylogenies may be enough for reliable identification.
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    A Bewitching Time: Early Second Wave Feminism Through the Lens of Supernatural Sitcoms
    ( 2021-12-07) Dias, Alexis
    In the early 1960s, second wave feminism began to organize and take root across the United States with an increasingly loud call for the advancement of women’s rights and roles in society. A new kind of sitcom began filling houses across the nation suggesting the virtuous and near perfect image of American domestic life previously televised was a little too picturesque. Supernatural sitcoms reinvented the genre by twisting the formulaic shows of the past to overtly and subconsciously encourage the audience to question what was previously considered to be normal and ideal images of the American family and lifestyle. In this paper, I argue that the supernatural women in My Living Doll, I Dream of Jeannie, and Bewitched are able to shed light on the role of American women in the 1960s and reflect the societal struggle to reconcile women's increasing demand for freedom with the dominant power’s desire to maintain authority and contain everyone else. Drawing on examples from primary and secondary sources, my analysis suggests that these stories gave credence to women wielding extraordinary power while also suggesting that women’s rightful place was in the domestic realm where their influence was limited to their home, love interest, or immediate community.
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    Placemaking and the Gentrification of Kakaʻako
    ( 2021-12-07) Menina, Justin
    This thesis critically examines how narratives of neighborhood identity and boundaries become manufactured, reinterpreted, and commodified by corporate-led urban development in Kakaʻako. In critically examining the production of space by engaging in critical discourse analysis, narrative research, and phenomenology by examining discursive literature and conducting interviews with community stakeholders, this project addresses how such processes are tied to a broader structure of inequality and shape how neighborhood identities and boundaries change or remain. The prevalent anxieties within the public discourse of Hawaiʻi is that Honolulu is increasingly experiencing gentrification and becoming “a playground for the rich.” Such notions reflect David Harvey’s argument that, within the predominant neoliberal economic structure of capitalist economies, capital can shape cities and the urban landscape through the process of “accumulation by dispossession” (Ley, 1994). Consequently, such processes superimpose settler-colonial geographies upon the landscape, thereby rendering Indigenous geographies disenfranchised. While gentrification is a predominately economic process, its development is reinforced by consumption-oriented patterns toward urban space, which, within the intermodal process of consumption-oriented gentrification, reflects David Ley’s (1994) observation that socio-cultural characteristics and motives are vital toward understanding the gentrification of the post-industrial city. In recognizing gentrification’s inherently violent processes of dispossession and erasure as a result of the uneven production and consumption of space, this project aims to critically examine the neoliberal structuring of cities, which facilitates the commodification and consumption of space in Hawaiʻi, using the district of Kakaʻako as a site of inquiry.
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    Promoting Biodiversity in a Pinch: The Influence of a Hawaiian Coastal Refuge on Ghost Crab (Ocypodidae) Size and Density on Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi.
    ( 2021-12-07) Tritsch, Jessica
    In an effort to preserve ecosystem biodiversity, marine protected areas (MPAs) are established following governmental regulations. To better understand the significance of the refuge, ghost crabs (genus Ocypode, Hawaiian name Ōhiki), which tunnel deep into the sand and leave behind burrow holes, were used as an indicator species. The goal of this research was to compare the size, abundance, and density of ghost crabs inside and outside of James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge (JCNWR) to test the hypothesis of the success of beach biota from conservation. First, the sandy locations along the site were mapped using a GPS, then transects were randomized both inside and outside JCNWR. Within each transect, the burrow holes were counted, and the diameters were measured to estimate body size and abundance. The total number of burrows per unit area was used to calculate population densities. The results show no significant difference in ghost crab size or density inside versus outside the refuge. The results suggest the refuge is experiencing possible disturbance or the “spillover effect” providing protection to adjacent areas. Ultimately, the findings from this research can aid in conservation efforts at JCNWR to better protect the terrestrial crab.
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    Hot Algae Summer: ENSO Effects on Invasive Alien Algae in Hawaii
    ( 2021-12-07) Pujol, Beatrice
    Efficient management of invasive populations is critical to maintaining the health of ecosystems, especially those of coastal marine areas. It is necessary to understand, therefore, the interactions between invasive species and abiotic factors to better control population growth. This study examined the relationship between invasive alien algae (IAA) in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), finding that the average percent cover of IAA was significantly greater during ENSO-neutral years than El Nino years. This was true of each of the three major invasive algae species: Acanthophora spicifera, Avrainvillea amadelpha, and Gracilaria salicornia. These results are contrary to previous, similar studies which found that percent cover of algae increased during El Nino years, likely as a result of increased temperatures which facilitate algal growth. This might indicate that sea temperatures in Maunalua Bay may have reached the optimum for algal growth as a result of anthropogenic climate change, meaning that any additional rise in temperature hinders algal growth.
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    Contact Tracing Programs of California and New York State: A Comparison and Evaluation
    ( 2021-12-07) Murguia, Simoné
    The contact tracing programs for the COVID-19 pandemic of the states of California and New York are compared using a system of criteria developed by a group of scientists with Vital Services, a global public health organization that creates documents and guidelines that larger government bodies are meant to implicate into their own systems to have the most success possible in a public health crisis. Positive case data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and pieces of legislation passed in each state were analyzed in the lens of the criteria from the COVID-19 Contact Tracing Playbook provided by Vital Services. Findings showed that each state had certain strengths and weaknesses within the ten criteria used to measure the efficiencies of their contact tracing systems. In summation, the states of California and New York, as well as states and nations globally, could benefit from assessing their systems in this fashion in order to maintain high standards of public health throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.