Pacific Science Volume 46, Number 4, 1992

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    46: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1992)
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    Diversity in Intertidal Habitats: An Assessment of the Marine Algae of Select High Islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1992-10) Smith, Celia M.
    Quantitative and qualitative sampling of intertidal algal assemblages on a limestone bench (O'ahu) and basalt benches (O'ahu and Hawai'i) resulted in enumeration of more than 100 species of macrophytic and turf species on O'ahu and over 60 species of primarily turf algae on Hawai'i. These assemblages are diverse and of a mosaic type and represent subcosmopolitan species, pantropical species, West Pacific species, and apparent endemic species. The algal community on Hawai'i shares 40 to 75% similarity with O'ahu populations that in one case shared only 66% similarity with adjacent sites for the same substrate type. It is suggested that the differences in species distributions are associated with age-related substrate effects and possibly settlement shadow effects.
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    William T Brigham's Hawaiian Birds and a Possible Historical Record of Ciridops anna (Aves: Drepanidini) from Molokai
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1992-10) Olson, Storrs L.
    Two of the five known specimens of the extinct Hawaiian bird Ciridops anna (Dole, 1878) came to the Museum of Comparative Zoology with a small collection of Hawaiian birds of unknown origin. Historical evidence is marshaled to show that this material was almost certainly collected by William T. Brigham in 1864-1865. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the specimens of Ciridops anna may have come from the island of Molokai, where the species was previously unknown during the historic period.
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    Observations on Egg Hatching in the Estuarine Crab Sesarma haematocheir
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1992-10) Saigusa, Masayuki
    A female of the terrestrial crab Sesarma haematoeheir incubates 30,000-50,000 eggs on her abdomen. After 1 month of embryonic development, zoeae larvae are released into estuarine waters within 3-5 sec by means of vigorous fanning motions of the abdomen. Hatching (breakage of the outer egg membrane) occurs on land just before larval release. The release behavior itself does not cause rupture of the egg case, nor has the presence of a "hatching enzyme" been obviously demonstrated. Hatching seems to be induced by mechanical rupture of the egg case. The pressure responsible for hatching may be produced either by the larva itself, or by osmotic swelling of thin inner membranes encasing the larva, although neither of these hypotheses is sufficient at present to explain the complete hatching mechanism. If hatching is explained by such mechanisms, then there remains the question of how hatching is synchronized among the large number of embryos attached to the female. Hatching of detached embryos is synchronized to some extent, but the degree of synchronization is less than that occurring in the larvae carried by the female. This observation suggests that stimuli from the female are important in establishing highly synchronized hatching. The ecological significance of the hatching system is also discussed.
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    New Taxa of Ceramieae (Rhodophyta) from Hawai'i
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1992-10) Norris, Richard E. ; Abbott, Isabella A.
    A new genus and five new species belonging in the Ceramieae have been found in recent analyses of the Hawaiian Ceramiaceae. Ardreanema, the new genus, is a microscopic plant having a simple moniliform structure with light cortication where cells meet (nodes) in the filament. Several gonimolobes composed of uniseriate rows of carposporangia are formed on female plants, and tetrasporangia, one per segment, are borne in a series near distal ends of branches. A single species, A. farifructa, n. sp., is assigned to the genus. The other new species are Ceramium dumosertum, Ceramium womersleyi, Ceramium hanaense, and Ceramium ptilocladioides.
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