Pacific Science Volume 29, Number 1, 1975

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Surface Sediments of the Nazca Plate
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Rosato, Victor J. ; Kulm, L.D. ; Derks, P Steve
    A new surface sediment distribution map of the southeast Pacific Ocean has been compiled from approximately 800 existing samples. Ridge sediments are characterized by calcareous ooze; deep ocean basin sediments by clay; trench sediments by mud; and continental margin sediments by mud or material of sand size or larger. Siliceous oozes are generally absent largely because of dilution by calcareous material near the equator and terrigenous material near the continent, and because of dissolution in the water column and on the sea floor. Some sediments on the East Pacific Rise and in the Bauer Depression are markedly enriched in iron and manganese, whereas, in other areas, concentrations of transition metals are confined to nodules. Organic carbon values in bottom sediments bear a direct relationship to the productivity of the overlying surface waters, and range up to 6.9 percent in a strongly upwelling area. Pyroclastic material is more widespread off Peru than Chile. This may be due to easterly upper trophosphere winds over Peru and westerly upper trophosphere winds over Chile.
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    On the Use of Benthic Foraminifera as Sediment Tracers in a Hawaiian Bay
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Coulbourn, William T. ; Resig, Johanna M.
    Populations of foraminifera were investigated in regard to the suitability of the various species as indicators of sand transport. Of 53 species recorded in the sediments of Kahana Bay, Oahu, 16 showed distribution patterns that give evidence of the direction of sand transport within the littoral cell.
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    Sertulum Papuanum 20 The Boraginaceae of the Alpine Regions of New Guinea
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) van Royen, P.
    In the alpine flora of New Guinea the Boraginaceae occupy a small place with only three genera, Cynoglossum, Myosotis, and Trigonotis, and a problematical fourth one, Crucicaryum, being reported. In the present treatment descriptions of genera and species are given with localities, collectors, and ecological notes. The genus Trigonotis is given in its entity, including all species in New Guinea outside the alpine region. Two new species, T. culminicola and T. vestita, are described.
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    The Warbling Silverbill, A New Nesting Bird in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Berger, Andrew J.
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    Distribution and Ecology of the Marine Toad, Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Zug, George R. ; Lindgren, Eric ; Pippet, John R.
    Bufo marinus was introduced into the New Guinea region in the late 1930s. Its present distribution in Papua New Guinea is mapped. In the Port Moresby area, the population of Bufo marinus is capable of reproduction at any time of the year. Sampling at a rain forest and a savanna site near Port Moresby showed that the density of savanna toads is 10 times that of rain forest toads but that the rain forest toads are longer and heavier. This size difference probably results from the greater amounts of food and a larger proportion of proteinaceous food in the stomachs of rain forest toads. No native frogs appear to have been displaced by the successful invasion of the toad. Similarly, no native animals have become apparent toad predators. The literature on Bufo marinus ecology is summarized.
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    A Comparison of Effects of Elevated Temperature versus Temperature Fluctuations on Reef Corals at Kahe Point, Oahu
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Coles, Stephen L.
    Bottom temperature and the condition of live corals in the vicinity of the discharge plume from the Hawaiian Electric Company Kahe Generating Station, Oahu, Hawaii, were monitored August-December 1973. Mortality to Pocillopora meandrina, the most thermally sensitive species of the area, was no greater under conditions of maximum thermal enrichment near the living reef fringe in the discharge area (1-2 m depth) than in an area (4-5 m depth) more distant from the discharge. Sublethal coral damage was more pronounced near the discharge, but was mostly limited to loss of zooxanthellar pigment which was restored following yearly ambient temperature maxima. Although bottom temperatures in the discharge area continually varied 30-40 C within minute periods during every low tide, live corals seldom encountered temperatures exceeding 31 0 C. The limited damage that occurred to live corals indicates that upper absolute temperatures are more critical in producing coral damage than are short-term temperature shocks near upper lethal limits.
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    Red Tide in the Morobe District of Paupa New Guinea
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Maclean, J.L.
    A red tide near Lae in the Morobe District of Papua New Guinea is described. The causative dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense Plate, is known to produce paralytic shellfish poisoning. Its characteristics are extensive orangebrown discolorations of seawater by day, luminescence at night, and mortality to a wide variety of marine life, including dolphins, turtles, fish, and bivalve mollusks. An analysis of plankton samples taken in the area is given. Bivalve shellfish proved highly toxic, but no toxin was detected in dead and live fish from water visibly discolored by red tide. Comparisons are made with observations of a previous red tide in the Central District near Port Moresby.
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    Leachia pacifica (Cephalopoda, Teuthoidea): Spawning Habitat and Function of the Brachial Photophores
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1975-01) Young, Richard E.
    Leachia pacifica reaches about 80 percent of its maximum length in near-surface waters off Hawaii, then abruptly descends to depths greater than 1,000 meters where maturation and mating occur. At these latter depths, large photophores develop on the tips of the third arms in females. The photophores provide a possible means for sexual attraction.
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