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ItemTrust Violations in Human-Human and Human-Robot Interactions: The Influence of Ability, Benevolence and Integrity Violations( 2022-01-04)The present work investigated the effects of trust violations on perceptions and risk-taking behaviors, and how those effects differ in human-human versus human-machine collaborations. Participants were paired with either a human or machine teammate in a derivation of a well-known trust game. Therein, the teammate committed one of three qualitatively different trust violations (i.e., an ability-, benevolence-, or integrity-based violation of trust). The results showed that ability-based trust violations had the largest impact on perceptions of ability; the other trust violations did not have differential impacts on self-reported ability, benevolence, or integrity, or risk-taking behaviors, and none of these effects were qualified by being partnered with a human versus a robot. Additionally, humans engaged in more risk-taking behaviors when paired with a robotic partner compared to a human over time.
ItemInvestigating Conformity and the Role of Personality in a Visual Decision Task with Humanoid Robot Peers( 2022-01-04)Effective implementation of mixed initiative teams, where humans work alongside machines, requires increased understanding of the decision-making process and the role of social influence exerted by non-human peers. Conformity—the act of adjusting attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors to those of another—is considered to be the strongest of these social pressures. Previous studies have attempted to understand conformity with humans interacting with a group of robots, but these have failed to identify satisfactory explanations for inconsistent findings. Grounded in trait-activation theory, we propose that personality is a critical factor that needs to be considered. In this effort, we recreated the famous social psychology experiment by Solomon Asch and conducted a single condition study to explore the effects of social influence on decision making. Our study results showed conformity with robot peers did occur. Moreover, scores on the Openness personality trait were a significant predictor of conformity.