Pacific Science Volume 42, Numbers 3-4, 1988

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    42: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988)
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    A Catalog of Zoological Specimens Collected from Tuvalu (Ellice Islands) by Sixten Bock, 1917
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Rodgers, K.A. ; Olerod, R.
    Collections of Hydrozoa, Turbellaria, Pol ychaeta, Isopoda, Amphipoda, Decapoda, Stomatopoda, Polyplacophora, Prosobranchia, Opistho branchia, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Holothuroidea were made from Nanumanga, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukulaelae, Nukufetau, Niutao, and Nanumea in September 1917 by Sixten Bock. Apart from the Cypraeacea, these are currently held in Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm. While some descriptions of these specimens have been published, new names are given here for some gener a and species, as identified in the museum catalogs, and should be treated as nomina nuda until formally published.
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    Sand Deposits Offshore Oahu, Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Coulbourn, W.T. ; Campbell, J.F. ; Anderson, P.N. ; Daugherty, P.M. ; Greenberg, V.A. ; Izuka, S.K. ; Lauritzen, R.A. ; Tsutsui, B.O. ; Yan, C.Y.
    The value of sand as aggregate for concrete for the construction industry and as sediment for artificial beach replenishment at tourist destinations on Oahu has increased following a legislative moratorium on the mining of beach sand. Concern for future shortfalls of sand supply prompted prospecting for offshore deposits. Sand channels extend offshore from major valleys and coastal embayments on Oahu. Most of these accumulations join sinuous deposits of sediment ponded on ancient terraces that parallel the coastline. Sand cores were collected from these mapped deposits. Statistical analysis of particle size distributions of 279 samples from these cores reveals local areas that are promising for future exploitation. In some areas, variations of grain size can be related to water depth and distance from shore, but in most areas, grain sizes are not simply related to the geographic distribution of sampled sand. Along the leeward Oahu coast, size distributions are related to depth in core : 5 ft of fine sand covers medium and coarse sand. Comparisons between samples from different locales reveals relationships primarily to submarine geomorphology and secondarily to coastal wave climate.
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    Denudation Rates of the Hawaiian Islands by Rivers and Groundwaters
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Li, Yuan-Hui
    The carbonic acid produced by the microbial oxidation of organic matter is the most important chemical weathering agent of the Hawaiian basaltic rocks. The total denudation rate of the Hawaiian Islands ranges from 11 to 50 mg/cm2 /yr (or 0.04-0.19 mm/yr), The island of Hawaii has the lowest denudation rate among the Hawaiian Islands.
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    Lysocline, Calcium Carbonate Compensation Depth, and Calcareous Sediments in the North Pacific Ocean
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Chen, CTA ; Feely, R.A. ; Gendron, J.F.
    An extensive oceanographic investigation has been carried out in the North Pacific Ocean. The purpose of this report is to present the results of two cruises in which we participated and to report additional carbonate data from samples collected for us in the North Pacific. These data are combined with data from the literature to provide an overall picture of the carbonate system in the North Pacific. The degree of saturation of seawater with respect to calcite and aragonite was calculated from all available data sets. Four selected cross sections, three longitudinal and one latitudinal, and two three-dimensional graphs show that a large volume of the North Pacific is undersaturated with respect to CaC03. The saturation horizon generally shows a shoaling from west to east and from south to north in the North Pacific Ocean. It was found that the lysocline is at a depth much deeper (about 2500 m deeper) than the saturation horizon of calcite, and several hundred meters shallower than the calcium carbonate compensation depth. Our results appear to support the kinetic point of view on the CaC03 dissolution mechanisms. Differences in the abundance of the calcareous sediments are explained by differences in the calcium carbonate compensation depth.
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    Uncinia Pers. (Cyperaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Henrickson, James ; Herbst, Derral
    The Hawaiian Islands contain two species of Uncinia (Cyperaceae): Uncinia uncinata, with glabrous utricles, occurs at high elevations in Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and Kaua'i, and is the most common species in New Zealand; U. brevicaulis, with hirsute -strigose utricles, is rare and previously unreported from Hawai'i. It otherwise occurs in the Juan Fernandez, Falkland, and Tristan da Cunha islands, western Chile, and Argentina. Uncinia uncinta var. uliginosa is not recognized as significantly distinct. The Hawaiian species are not considered taxonomically distinct from plants in their respective home areas. The occurrence of both species in the Hawaiian Islands is considered the product of separate long-distance dispersal events involving birds.
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    Vesicular- Arbuscular Mycorrhizae of Some Hawaiian Dune Plants
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Koske, R.E.
    The mycorrhizal status of dune plants from the island of Hawaii was investigated. All plants, including Batis maritima, Cocos nucifer, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Pennisetum setaceum , Prosopis pallida, Scaevola taccada, and Sporobolus sp., had vesicular - urbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM). Levels of colonization by VAM fungi ranged from less than 10% to 100% of the root length and were highest in Ipomoea , Pennisetum, and Sporobolus. Twelve species of VAM fungi were recovered, half of which are undescribed. The most frequently recovered species were Sclerocystis sinuosa, Glomus microaggregatum, an undescribed Glomus sp., and an undescribed Scutellospora (Gigaspora) sp. The composition of the VAM fungal communities of the black sand dunes differed from those of the quartz and carbonate dunes. The community of Hawaiian dune mycorrhizal fungi was very distinct from dune communities of Australia, San Miguel Island (California), the Atlantic Coast of the United States, Scotland, and Italy. The presence or absence of VAM fungi in dunes may have been of critical importance to the successful colonization of the Hawaiian Islands by some vascular plants, and these fungi may thus have influenced the subsequent development of the native flora.
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    The Occurrence of Lymphocystis in a New Host Species, Sargocentron punctatissimum Cuvier and Valenciennes, Collected and Maintained in Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Anderson, Beth E. ; Brock, James A. ; Hayashi, Takuji ; Teruya, Stephanie ; Nakagawa, Lauren K.
    Seven specimens of squirrelfish, Sargocentron punctatissimum Cuvier and Valenciennes, collected from Allen Davis Beach Park, Oahu, Hawaii, developed lymphocystis lesions while being maintained at the Waikiki Aquarium. Four other reef fish species collected and held with the squirrelfish did not develop lymphocystis disease. This is the first documentation of lymphocystis from a member of the Holocentridae from Pacific waters and the second report of lymphocystis from a marine fish species collected in Hawaiian waters.
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    A Revision of the Hawaiian Lizardfishes of the Genus Synodus with Descriptions of Four New Species
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Waples, Robin S. ; Randall, John E.
    The Hawaiian lizard fishes of the genus Synodus are reviewed; 4 new species are described (bringing to 12 the number known from Hawaii), and the range of S. capricorn is Cressey and Randall is extended to the Northern Hemisphere. It is also determined that the name Synodus variegatus (Lacepede) properly applies to the species commonly known as S. englemani Schultz. Synodus dermatogenys Fowler is the oldest available name for the species that has been known as S. variegatus. Gill-raker counts are used as diagnostic characters for the first time with synodontids, and color slides and observations of fresh specimens revealed species-specific pigmentation patterns, many of which typically disappear with preservation. The key includes all known lizardfishes from Hawaii (genera Saurida, Synodus, Tra chinocephalus). Synodus amaranthus sp. nov. is similar to S. dermatogenys but differs in having barred pelvic fins; more gill rakers; and greater head length, orbit diameter, and pectoral fin length. SynodusJalcatus sp. nov. and S .janus sp. nov. have the high vertebral and lateral-line scale counts typical of S. ulae Schultz and S. capricornis, but have fewer gill rakers and different nasal flaps. Synodus lobeli sp. nov. is closest to S. indicus (Day), a species known only from the Indian Ocean and the Philippines, but has a shorter head, lower modal number of dorsal fin rays, and lacks the two dark marks found on the opercle of the latter species. Electrophoretic data are presented for the seven species (binotatus, dermatogenys, doaki, Jalcatus, ulae, usitatus, and variegatus) for which fresh or frozen material was available. Each of these species could be separated from all others on the basis of multiple fixed allelic differences, and this facilitated unambiguous identification of morphologically similar species. Discriminant function analysis, with functions derived for groups identified by electrophoretic phenotype, was used in the identification of specimens that could not be sampled electrophoretically.
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    Body Size and Differential Mating Success between Males of Two Populations of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) Arita, Lorna H. ; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.
    Mate preference experiments were conducted between males from two populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, to investigate the effect of body size on mating success. The results of the experiment indicate that increased body size of males cannot be equated with mating success. In the lek behavior phase, physical encounters between males for possession of a preferred territory seem to favor a male with a larger body size. However, males from one of the populations were twice as successful in mating with females of either population than males from the other population despite their significantly smaller body size. Thus, it appears that while size may possibly be correlated with intrasexual selection and the establishment of a dominance hierarchy within the lek, courtship performance is still the most important criterion for mating success in the medfly.
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