Mixed, Augmented and Virtual Reality

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    Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Short-term and Long-term Effects
    ( 2018-01-03) Sommerauer, Peter ; Mueller, Oliver
    While many researchers have qualitatively examined the affordances and constraints of AR in educational settings, only few studies exist that tried to quantify the effect of AR on learning performance. To contribute to filling this research gap, we conducted a pretest-posttest-posttest crossover field experiment with 24 participants at a mathematics exhibition to measure the effect of AR on acquiring and retaining mathematical knowledge in an informal learning environment, both short-term (i.e., directly after visiting the exhibition) and long-term (i.e., two months after the museum visit). Our empirical results show that museum visitors performed significantly better on knowledge acquisition and retention tests related to augmented exhibits than to non-augmented exhibits directly after visiting the exhibition (i.e., short-term), but this positive effect of AR vanished in the long run.
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    Usability and Reliability of Smart Glasses for Secondary Triage During Mass Casualty Incidents
    ( 2018-01-03) Broach, John ; Hart, Alexander ; Griswold, Matthew ; Lai, Jeffrey ; Boyer, Edward W ; Skolnik, Aaron B ; Chai, Peter R
    Wearable smart glasses like Google Glass provide real-time video and image transmission to remote viewers. The use of Google Glass and other Augmented Reality (AR) platforms in mass casualty incidents (MCIs) can provide incident commanders and physicians at receiving hospitals real-time data regarding injuries sustained by victims at the scene. This real-time data is critical to allocation of hospital resources prior to receiving victims of a MCI. Remote physician participation in real-time MCI care prior to victims’ hospital arrival may improve triage, and direct emergency and critical care services to those most in need. We report the use of Google Glass among first responders to transmit real-time data from a simulated MCI to allow remote physicians to complete augmented secondary triage.
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    The Three Pillars of Virtual Reality? Investigating the Roles of Immersion, Presence, and Interactivity
    ( 2018-01-03) Mütterlein, Joschka
    Virtual reality (VR) technologies enable a new media consumption experience. Although VR’s origins trace back at least to the 1960s, it is still unclear how VR’s postulated key features immersion, presence, and interactivity contribute to that experience. Furthermore, it is unclear whether flow as a construct closely related to immersion offers explanatory power in investigating VR. On the basis of a quantitative survey in a VR center with 294 participants, I analyze the interplay of the key features and exemplify their influence in a VR context by relating them to satisfaction with the VR experience. Using a flow-based conceptualization of immersion, I find that presence as well as interactivity contribute to immersion. In addition, interactivity contributes to presence. Furthermore, my results show that immersion influences satisfaction with a VR experience, indicating that a flow-based conceptualization of immersion is a suitable predictor in VR contexts.
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    The Role of Immersive Virtual Reality in Individual Learning
    ( 2018-01-03) Kampling, Henrik
    New technologies create opportunities to improve education and, in this way, the individual learning. Due to their certain characteristics, such as immersion (i.e. the total engagement to a specific activity while other attentional demands are ignored), immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems have the potential to increase the individual learning performance. Modern VR-head mounted displays (e.g. Oculus Rift) and provided controllers allow a new kind of interaction within a virtual environment. Against this background, the construct cognitive absorption (CA) within a learning context emerged. CA consists of five sub- constructs: temporal dissociation, curiosity, enjoyment, control, and immersion. Both, learning and CA, have already been brought together but not within a context of immersive VR. Hence, this study examines learning and its conditions within an immersive VR context by a Grounded Theory approach with 21 qualitative interviews. Implications for theory and design are derived.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Mixed, Augmented and Virtual Reality
    ( 2018-01-03) Parvinen, Petri ; Hamari, Juho ; Pöyry, Essi