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    Turning Users' In-Game Behaviours into Actionable Adaptive Gamification Strategies using the PEAS Framework
    ( 2022-01-04) Loria, Enrica ; Hallifax, Stuart ; Altmeyer, Maximilian ; Nacke, Lennart E. ; Marconi, Annapaola
    Adaptive gamification answers the need to customize engagement strategies because users are motivated by different game elements and mechanics. To better understand these individual preferences, user modelling is vital. However, gameful designers must make many decisions on matching profiling data to actual adaptation strategies, which makes modelling particularly challenging. The lack of a standardized and guided process for adaptive gamification hinders replicability, comparability, and complicates making adaptation dynamic. In this study, we analyzed a persuasive gameful application (Play\&Go) to show how in-game behaviours can be translated into adaptation strategies. We used an existing adaptation framework (PEAS) grounded in the games and gamification literature. Our work demonstrates the suitability of the PEAS model as a shared, standardized method for adaptive gamification and shows how it can guide the process of transforming user behaviours into actionable adaptation strategies.
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    Meaningful Gameplay Design and the Effect on Eudaimonic and Hedonic Gaming Experience
    ( 2022-01-04) Koek , Wei Jie Dominic ; Yu, Valerie ; Chen, Vivian Hsueh Hua
    Past research has looked into meaningfulness in video game narratives, as well as meaningful play. However, more empirical studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of meaningful play. This paper first investigates how the design of game dialogues may enable meaningfulness in video games (eudaimonic gaming experience) and how it relates to game enjoyment (hedonic gaming experience). Second, it also examines how meaningful play influences prosocial attitudes toward culturally different outgroups. A pre-posttest experiment of a management game was conducted with 174 adult participants. Participants were randomly assigned to either a game with moral scenarios or one without. Results showed that participants who played the game with moral decision-making perceived a higher level of meaningfulness and game enjoyment. No significant relationship was found between perceived meaningfulness and intergroup perceptions.
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    Gamification for Software Development Processes – Relevant Affordances and Design Principles
    ( 2022-01-04) Eggert, Mathias ; Kriska, Melina
    A Gamified Information System (GIS) implements game concepts and elements, such as affordances and game design principles to motivate people. Based on the idea to develop a GIS to increase the motivation of software developers to perform software quality tasks, the research work at hand aims at investigating relevant requirements from that target group. Therefore, 14 interviews with software development experts are conducted and analyzed. According to the results, software developers prefer the affordances points, narrative storytelling in a multiplayer and a round-based setting. Furthermore, six design principles for the development of a GIS are derived.
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    Encouraging Gameful Experience in Digital Game-Based Learning: A Double-Mediation Model of Perceived Instructional Support, Group Engagement, and Flow
    ( 2022-01-04) Höyng, Mona
    In the current digitalization era, digital game-based learning (DGBL) is used in education to engage and motivate students. Gameful experience (GE) is a crucial precondition to determine the effectiveness of these games. However, previous research focused solely on the effects of games on inter alia student engagement, and empirical research regarding GE is lacking. This study investigates the factors that encourage students’ GE. Grounded in the theory of experience, a double-mediation model is developed that considers the direct relationship between instructional support and students’ GE and examines how group engagement and flow mediate this relationship. Data from 336 students participating in a team-based business simulation game revealed that group engagement and flow sequentially double-mediated the positive relationship between instruc-tional support and GE. Thus, to encourage students’ GE, educators and education institutions should provide appropriate instructional support that promotes group engagement as well as flow among students.
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    Designing Gamification for Sustainable Employee Behavior: Insights on Employee Motivations, Design Features and Gamification Elements
    ( 2022-01-04) Krath, Jeanine ; Morschheuser, Benedikt ; Von Korflesch, Harald
    Encouraging sustainable employee behavior is critical for companies in the face of increasing societal pressure towards sustainability. While gamification has been shown to influence employee behavior effectively, current attempts to design gamification for sustainability in the workplace largely neglect the importance of understanding personal factors and contextual characteristics. This work explores employees' motivations for sustainable behavior and expectations for design features through in-depth interviews with 27 employees from different SMEs. Our results show that many employees tend to be egoistically motivated, suggesting the design of appropriate narratives and individualistic-oriented design features. Employees expected utilitarian, hedonistic, and social design features that primarily serve to support them in achieving personal sustainability goals while highlighting that gamification at work should also integrate seamlessly with existing work routines. We contribute to gamification design research by discussing the particularities of the workplace sustainability context and shedding new light on involving users in gamification design.
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    Conceptualizing Narratives in Gamified Information Systems
    ( 2022-01-04) Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel ; Warsinsky, Simon ; Thiebes, Scott ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Converging hedonic and utilitarian elements under the label of gamification has become an important phenomenon in information systems over the last decade. Yet, academic discourse on narratives in gamified IS remains scarce. To advance scholarly engagement, this study recontextualizes the concept of narratives for gamified IS. Based on the theoretical lens of hedonic and utilitarian consumption, we conducted a hermeneutic literature review in which we engaged with existing conceptualizations of narratives in a total of 84 studies across various disciplines. Results include a basic conceptualization of narratives complemented by six claims that may shape our way of thinking about narratives in gamified IS. Our findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of narratives in gamified IS that goes beyond that of traditional game elements. It may serve as a cornerstone for further discourse on narratives and how to meaningfully design them in gamified IS.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Gamification
    ( 2022-01-04) Legaki, Nikoletta-Zampeta ; Xi, Nannan ; Hamari, Juho