M.S. - Biomedical Sciences

Permanent URI for this collection

Browse

Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 31
  • Item
  • Item
  • Item
  • Item
    Effects of the Accessory Infraorbital Nerve and Foramen on the Morphology of the Infraorbital Nerve and Foramen
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [December 2016], 2016-12) Polo, Carolina
    Title: Effects of the accessory infraorbital nerve on the morphology of the infraorbital nerve and foramen Problem: Anatomical variations of the infraorbital neurovascular bundle are frequently encountered during a host of oral surgical procedures involving the infraorbital region. The accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF) and its nerve (AION) are variable, but clinical implications are common and include failure of loco-regional anesthesia, risk of neural damage, or hemorrhage following surgical interventions particularly involving the infraorbital nerve (ION) and foramen (IOF). Thus, morphological characterization of the AIOF and AION and relationships to the IOF and ION are essential for optimizing oral surgical procedures. Additionally, predictive features of the AION based on its relationship to ION morphology could facilitate predictive capabilities enabling the surgeon to anticipate its presence and proceed accordingly Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the presence of an AION affects the size, shape and composition of the infraorbital foramen and nerve. The specific hypothesis tested is that the topography and morphology of the ION and IOF differs between individuals possessing an AION and those lacking this anatomical variant. Data will serve to determine the potential field of innervation of the ION with and without the presence of AION and identify potential morphological correlates between ION and AION features. Procedure: Gross topographic features of IOF (84 hemifaces) were compared between specimens possessing (test) or lacking (control) an AIOF. Nerve fascicle features of ION (60 cadaveric sides) were examined histologically and compared morphometrically between specimen with or without an AION. Results: Occurrence of AIOF was determined as 47.6% of the skulls (20 crania), but only 32.1% of the sides (27 sides). A single AIOF was observed in 24 sides and double AIOF in 3 sides. AIOF occurred bilaterally in seven specimens (16.7%). The majority of AIOF (86.7%) were located superomedial to IOF, but overall a heterogeneous direction of the canal leading to AIOF was noted. A higher frequency of AION was found in left side compared to the right. The number and area of nerve fascicles were determined histologically. The size of the ION without an AION was not significantly different than the ION with AION (1.45x106/1.32x106, p < 0.35). However, the number of ION fascicles was greater in specimens without and AION compared to those with an AION (15.15/12.71, p <0.04) Conclusions: The data indicate that the area of the ION is not affected by an AION, suggesting that the field of innervation of this area will not be modified However the ION appears to divide more proxima in the cases when the AION is present.
  • Item
    Morphological Study of the Human Hyoid Bone in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2016], 2016-08) Abdelkarim, Ahmed
    Qualitative assessment of 3-D reconstructions derived from MRI and CT imaging technologies is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). However, rapid and reliable quantitative assessment remains elusive. This is particularly true for the analysis of regional deficiencies in morphology of CLP patients. Recent interest has focused on the morphology of the hyoid region of CLP patients since this area is derived from pharyngeal arch 2 and may be indirectly affected by the deficiency in the primary palate derived from pharyngeal arch 1. The objective of this study is to develop and apply novel morphometric methodology to quantitatively assess hyoidal morphology in CLP patients. The hypothesis to be tested is that CLP patients display hyoidal regions that differ quantitatively from patients lacking CLP. Five geometric models with known parameters were designed to simulate size and shape descriptors and used to test the precision and accuracy of ER3D. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images derived from CLP patients as well as patients lacking CLP and these were utilized to generate 3D reconstructions of the hyoidal region in corresponding individuals and compared utilizing affine and non-affine methodologies.. Anatomical landmarks were determined and digitized on the model. Results showed significant accuracy of ER3D morphometric analysis with respect to volumetric and linear measurements and proved the ability of the software to quantitatively record changes in size and shape. For the hyoid models, CLP individuals mostly displayed affine hyoidal changes relative to controls since the defect likely causes size reductions in affected individuals. Non-affine changes were consistent among CLP subjects and were characterized as changes in position with respect to controls rather than shape change. Interestingly, female controls revealed a high degree of diversity compared to both male controls and all CLP groups. These data suggest that the hyoidal region is affected as a result of CLP, but the difference is dominated by size rather than shape change.