Volume 25 Number 2, June 2021

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
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    Discovering collocations via data-driven learning in L2 writing
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Wu, Yi-ju Ariel
    Adopting the approaches of pattern hunting and pattern refining (Kennedy & Miceli, 2001, 2010, 2017), this study investigates how seven freshman English students from Taiwan used the Corpus of Contemporary American English to discover collocation patterns for 30 near-synonymous change-of-state verbs and new ideas about the topic of “change” in the drafting stage of their essay writing. The study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the learning outcomes, learners’ corpus use, and their perceptions of the process. Results were drawn by analyzing writings in three time frames (pre-test, post-test, delayed post-test), video files of corpus consultation, questionnaires, and stimulus recall-session interviews. The results showed that the learners successfully discovered and incorporated collocation patterns in change-of-state verbs and ideas about the topic of change into their essays, although some difficulties emerged. Their performance on change-of-state verbs improved, and this improvement remained three months after the treatment. The study also demonstrated learners’ different perceptions and actualizations of the affordances offered by the corpus. While all learners used the corpus to correct collocation errors, they had diverse attitudes and uses of the corpus to address content ideas or collocation complexities in their writing. The study concludes by discussing the theoretical and pedagogical implications of the results.
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    The effects of captions on L2 learners’ comprehension of vlogs
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Aldukhayel, Dukhayel
    This study investigated the effects of captions on the listening comprehension of vlogs. A total of 96 EFL learners watched three vlogs under one of three conditions: L2 captions, L1 captions, and no captions. Each group included low-, mid-, and high-level proficiency learners. The vlogs differed in the pictorial support of the audio, with Vlog 1 being highly supported, Vlog 2 being partially supported, and Vlog 3 being slightly supported by pictorial images. After each vlog, the participants took a multiple-choice test measuring their comprehension of details. Afterwards, participants completed a questionnaire about their perception of captions. The findings suggest that the availability of captions may not necessarily lead to better listening comprehension because students, particularly lower proficiency learners, were unable to simultaneously process the multiple modalities (images, audio, and captions) due to their limited capacities of working memory and cognitive load. High-proficiency learners achieved better comprehension than low- and mid-proficiency learners and achieved their best comprehension with L2 captions. A significant increase in comprehension of vlogs caused by high pictorial support was detected, with the inverse relationship also being true. Analysis of the questionnaire indicated that participants consider L2 captions useful. For both L2 and L1 captions, students think that their listening comprehension would decrease without captions. When considering vlogs for L2 listening, language proficiency and pictorial support are better indicators of levels of comprehension. Captions might be beneficial when learners’ proficiency level is high. When visual images are highly supportive for the audio, better comprehension of vlogs is likely.
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    Flipping EFL learners’ writing classroom through role-reversal and discussion-oriented models
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Shafiee Rad, Hanieh ; Roohani, Ali ; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud
    This study investigated the effectiveness of two technology-enhanced models of the flipped classroom, discussion-oriented and role-reversal, on English language learners’ expository writing skills and evaluated the proposed models as a means of teaching/learning writing skills. To these ends, a quasi-experimental design with three intact classes, one control (non-flipped group with 17 EFL learners) and two experimental (discussion-oriented group with 19 and role-reversal group with 24 EFL learners), was adopted. Pre and posttest essays were used to see the effectiveness of the two models, which used two digital apps. In addition, a researcher-made questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were utilized to evaluate the models with regard to writing skills. An analysis of covariance uncovered that the discussion-oriented and role-reversal flipped classrooms were more effective than the non-flipped ones. Also, the role-reversal group outperformed the discussion-oriented group in the writing gains in the posttest expository essays. Subsequent analyses demonstrated the positive perceptions and experiences about the flipped classrooms, revealing four themes of teacher support, personal feeling, peer support, and activities within and outside the classroom. This paper concludes with a call for technology integration in writing courses and more investigation into this promising technology-based pedagogy across different language skills.
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    Can a ‘pedagogical’ spellchecker improve spelling accuracy in L2 Spanish?
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Blazquez-Carretero, Miguel ; Woore, Robert
    Accurate spelling matters for L2 learners: It facilitates communication, affects other aspects of the writing process, and is an important assessment criterion. However, even in phonologically transparent writing systems like Spanish, L2 learners experience spelling difficulties. Nonetheless, explicit spelling instruction appears to be neglected by L2 teachers. Synchronous written corrective feedback, provided automatically by computerised spellcheckers, is one way of providing such instruction without cost to teaching time. However, evidence concerning the effectiveness of such feedback is mixed. Further, existing spellcheckers, designed for L1 speakers, present various problems for L2 learners. The current study reports on an experimental trial of a Pedagogic Spellchecker (PSC), developed specifically for L2 learners. In all, 107 adult learners of Spanish as a Foreign Language were block randomised into three treatment groups. All groups completed a short transcription task on five consecutive days. One group received feedback from the PSC; another received feedback from Microsoft Word spellchecker; the third received no feedback. Pre- and post-test data showed that the PSC group progressed significantly more in spelling accuracy than the other groups, with a large effect size. Nonetheless, Microsoft Word spellchecker reduced errors on spelling forms that it did not autocorrect. Pedagogical and theoretical implications are discussed.
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    Listeners’ patterns of interaction with help options: Towards empirically-based pedagogy
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica S. ; Campos-Ibaceta, Astrid ; Vera-Saavedra, Jimmy
    This multiple case study examined L2 listener patterns of interaction with help options in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) materials. Thirteen students enrolled in an initial English teacher education program interacted with six one-hour listening tasks constructed around talks on technology. Talks and associated exercises were uploaded to an online, self-regulated platform that provides listeners with different routes of interaction and access to one-click-away help options in the form of listening tips, culture/technology/biology notes, transcripts, a glossary, keywords, audio/video control bars, and an online dictionary. Interactions were recorded using screen capture technology and complemented with semi-structured interviews. Identified patterns of interaction are presented by section (pre-, while, and post-listening); type of exercise (vocabulary activation, multiple-choice, dictation-cloze, sentence completion, and extension activity); and session (1 through 6). Reasons for help option use are mapped onto identified patterns and are tested for consistency. The findings inform an underlying set of guidelines for listening pedagogy. Study limitations along with avenues for research are also discussed.
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    Modern language: Interaction in conversational NS-NNS video SCMC eTandem exchanges
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Strawbridge, Tripp
    This study investigates the interaction of native speaker–non-native speaker (NS-NNS) dyads engaged in conversational interaction as part of a video-based synchronous computer mediated communication (VidSCMC) eTandem language program. Previous work has indicated certain advantages of NNS-NS conversational interaction for language learning (e.g., Nakahama et al., 2001); however, this potential has not been tested empirically for interaction in voice-based synchronous computer mediated communication (SVCMC) platforms, despite their growing popularity among language learners (Yanguas & Bergin, 2018). Participants were 18 university students (9 L1 English-L2 Spanish; 9 L1 Spanish-L2 English) taking part in a VidSCMC eTandem language partnership between two universities, in the United States and Mexico. Building on previous interactionist work on synchronous computer mediated communication (SCMC), language related episodes (LREs) were analyzed for quantity, trigger type, initiator, reactive or preemptive status, instances of negotiation, and the provision of negative feedback. Results show a remarkably even distribution of LRE types and linguistic foci, with NSs and NNSs taking equal responsibility in promoting globally- and locally-focused target language (TL) comprehension and output through their engagement in LREs. These patterns are reflective of the simultaneously shared status of learner and expert by the members of NS-NNS eTandem exchange dyads. Results are discussed in light of the changing relationship between language and language learners brought on by modern technologies.
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    Corrective feedback in computer-mediated collaborative writing and revision contributions
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Yamashita, Taichi
    This study investigated the effects of corrective feedback (CF) during in-class computer-mediated collaborative writing on grammatical accuracy in a new piece of individual writing. Forty-eight ESL students at an American university worked on two computer-mediated animation description tasks in pairs. The experimental group received indirect CF on English indefinite and definite articles from the researcher during the tasks, while the comparison group worked on the same tasks without CF. Each computer screen was recorded during the treatment, so that the number of revision contributions from each individual learner could be identified. L2 development was measured by a pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest, where the students worked on an animation-description task without a partner. A repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant relationship between the presence of CF and accuracy improvement over time. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses suggested a significant relationship between the number of learners’ revision contributions and the delayed posttest scores when the pretest scores held constant. That is, individual learners’ long-term L2 development varied depending on the extent to which they contributed to the revision. These findings demonstrate the importance of tracking individuals’ contributions while calling for more detailed collection of data on actual revisions and the distribution of revision work within pairs or groups.
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    Computerized dynamic assessment of implicature comprehension in L2 Chinese
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Qin, Tianyu ; van Compernolle, Rémi A.
    The focus of this article is on the design and administration of an online computerized dynamic assessment of an important area of pragmatics: implicature comprehension (i.e., indirect meaning). The assessment centered on indirect acceptances, refusals, and opinions. Drawing on Vygotskian psychology, this assessment had a dual aim: (a) to evaluate test-takers’ current capacities as evidenced by independent performance and (b) to evaluate test-takers’ emerging capacities as evidenced by their responsiveness to assistance, or mediation, during the test. Sixty-seven US university learners of Chinese as a foreign language, evenly distributed across beginning, intermediate, and advanced course enrollment levels, took the assessment. The results show that while all test-takers were able to improve with assistance, there was a large degree of individual variation in responsiveness to mediation. In line with the notion of the zone of proximal development, we interpret our findings as evidence that the performances observed with mediation are more informative as a diagnosis of learner capability than independent performance alone. Our discussion therefore focuses on the implications of our testing approach for developing individual teaching and learning plans for test-takers, as well as directions for future research.
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    Review of Language teaching with video-based technology: Creativity and CALL teacher education
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-06-01) Suga, Kiyotaka