Volume 26 Number 1, 2022

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    Teachers’ technology-related self-images and roles: Exploring CALL teachers’ professional identity
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2022-06-20) Shafiee, Zahra ; Marandi, S. Susan ; Mirzaeian, Vahid Reza
    Despite the surge of interest in language teachers’ professional identity (TPI) as an integral component of their professional growth (Barkhuizen, 2017; Clarke, 2018) and the increasing interest in the field of computer assisted language learning (CALL) (Nami et al., 2015), there is still a paucity of research on the professional identity of language teachers who integrate technology with language instruction (CALL teachers). To bridge this gap, the present study explored the components that construct CALL teachers’ professional identity (CALLTPI). The data were collected from a set of in-depth, semi-structured interviews investigating perceptions of 24 CALL informants (educators, experts, professors, and teachers) from different contexts and countries about CALL teachers’ roles in technology integration in English language teaching (ELT). Fifteen sub-components were inferred from the thematic analysis of the interview transcripts as compared against the available literature on CALL teacher education and language teachers’ professional identity. These sub-components corresponded to three major components, namely, CALL teachers’ individual identity, classroom-based identity, and agentive identity. The results can provide CALL teacher educators with implications for designing professional development programs with the aim of developing teachers’ professional identity and enhancing the effectiveness of technology integration in ELT.
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    Computing curriculum time and input for incidentally learning academic vocabulary
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2022-06-08) Green, Clarence
    This paper computes estimates of the potential for Extensive Reading (ER) and Extensive Viewing (EV) to support the academic and discipline-specific vocabulary needs of students. While research into ER/EV for general vocabulary is well-established, only recently has academic vocabulary begun to be researched. Given curriculum time constraints, information on which academic vocabulary items might be learnable incidentally is useful, and this study provides teachers with information on which specific academic vocabulary items from multiple academic wordlists have a reasonable chance of being learned incidentally. It operationalizes ER/EV through corpora representing general fiction, television programs, and movies. It estimates the pedagogical time it would take to meet target vocabulary at different possible thresholds for incidental learning (6, 12, 20 times) with estimates for each computed for multiple possible reading rates (100, 260, 350 wpm) and viewing rates (80, 140, 200 wpm). Results report individual curriculum time/input estimates for over 2000 academic vocabulary targets across multiple subjects. Findings indicate ER/EV are pedagogies that could substantially support academic vocabulary development. A tool is released for teachers to compute personalized estimates using the reading rates of their students.
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    Integrating the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals: Developing content for virtual exchanges
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2022-05-02) Lenkaitis, Chesla Ann
    The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which were adopted in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, “provide a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet” (United Nations, 2020a). The SDGs, which include gender equality, quality education, and ending poverty, are those objectives that must be met by all countries “in a global partnership” (United Nations, 2020a). With the 2030 Agenda in mind, this Virtual Exchange (VE) study reveals learners in different geographical locations who are partnered with one another via technology can benefit from the embedding of SDG content into their VE (Dooly, 2017; Forward et al., 2020). This article focuses on two parallel, but separate, Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC) six-week VEs. Teacher trainees from a university in the United States were partnered with other teacher trainees from a university in Poland and/or Colombia. In another cohort, second language (L2) learners of Spanish from a university in the United States were partnered with those from a university in Poland. In each of these groupings, participants completed SCMC sessions via Zoom and discussed the SDGs. Qualitative and quantitative data reveal that awareness of these universal objectives increased and afforded them new perspectives. By using a culturally sensitive lens, teacher trainees developed teaching strategies and L2 learners increased their intercultural competence. These results suggest that integrating SDG content into virtual exchange can support the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda and can make a contribution to the field of VE.
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    Investigating learner autonomy and vocabulary learning efficiency with MALL
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2022-04-18) Daly, Nigel P.
    The road to second language competence is a long and arduous one, and much of its effort involves learning to recognize and use vocabulary. Fortunately, anytime-anywhere learning with smart phones and smart apps offer a means to lessen the burden and make vocabulary learning more efficient. Accordingly, this study investigated 134 students across four months and evaluated the effectiveness of their individual vocabulary learning strategies (only flashcard app; paper-based notes and wordlists; both notes and flashcard app) in terms of three different vocabulary test scores. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and pairwise comparisons revealed that the Only App Group had significantly higher test scores than both the Only Notes Group and the blended Notes/App Group with medium and small effect sizes (r = 0.49 and 0.27, respectively). A Fixed Effects model was run to determine the extent study strategies in addition to gender, (TOEIC) proficiency, time spent studying, time spent using the app, and frequency of studying, were correlated with test scores. In this moderator analysis, the Only App Group strategy was no longer statistically significant and was replaced by the factor “total time using the app” (p = .005) which was positively correlated with test scores.
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    Learners’ engagement on a social networking platform: An ecological analysis
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2022-04-04) Lyu, Boning ; Lai, Chun
    Language learners are actively engaging in language learning beyond the classroom. However, social networking sites, despite playing a major role in people’s lives, have been found to be rarely incorporated into language learners’ learning ecologies. An understanding of the factors that shape learners’ engagement on instruction-oriented social networking sites could inform platform design and enhance the likelihood of platforms being utilized. This study examined a group of language learners’ engagement on an instruction-oriented social networking site, Lang-8, over time. Using narrative data and learners’ behavioral data on the platform, the study revealed how various ecological resources on and outside the platform interacted with one another to shape the dynamic changes in different dimensions of learners’ engagement on the platform over time. The study also suggested that learners’ engagement on the platform further induced reconstruction of their language learning ecologies, providing additional learning opportunities both on and beyond the platform. The findings highlight the importance of supporting learner engagement on technological platforms in an informal learning context and provide insights into how such support could be achieved through system design.