The Diffusion, Impacts, Adoption and Usage of ICTs upon Society

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    Exploring the Relationship between IT Infrastructure and Income Inequality through Diffusion of Innovations Theory
    ( 2020-01-07) Kocsis, David
    Some cities in the United States experience gaps when it comes to income inequality. Entrepreneurs, managers, etc. can take advantage of information technologies (IT), while those in the middle and the bottom see fewer benefits. San Francisco is a perfect example of this dichotomy. Meanwhile, some countries, such as Iceland, are more capable of using the diffusion of Internet infrastructure to reduce income inequality, which contributes to the well-being of its citizens. This paper explores the relationship between the diffusion of IT infrastructure and income inequality through Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Using quantitative data through hierarchical regression, the empirical results show this theory’s tenets do not necessarily hold, because there is a significant negative relationship between infrastructure diffusion and income inequality growth. This paper contributes to research by expanding economic and sociology work to the IS domain, and provides suggestions for practice, such as more focused IT infrastructure investments.
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    Self-Regulation, Mind Wandering, and Cognitive Absorption During Technology Use
    ( 2020-01-07) Sullivan, Yulia ; Davis, Fred
    Interaction with technology involves not only externally directed cognition, but also internally directed cognition. Although the information systems (IS) field has made a significant progress toward understanding of how individuals use technology, more emphasis has been given to goal-directed external activity that requires focused external attention and less or no emphasis on goal-directed internal activity called mind wandering. Drawing upon the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature, the current research investigates the relationships between self-regulation, mind wandering, and cognitive absorption. Specifically, we hypothesize there is a U-shape relationship between mind wandering and cognitive absorption. Based on a cross-sectional study of 323 individuals, the results reveal that the relationship between mind wandering and cognitive absorption is curve-linear. As mind wandering increases, cognitive absorption decreases to a certain point, after which, cognitive absorption increases as mind wandering increases. The results also show self-regulation has a significant effect on mind wandering and cognitive absorption.
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    Explaining Multidimensional Facebook Benefits: A Task-Technology Fit Approach
    ( 2020-01-07) Bravo, Edgardo ; Bayona, Hugo
    Facebook has emerged as the most popular Social Network Site (SNS). The literature has studied extensively the factors that explain the use of Facebook. Despite this, not equal attention has been devoted to explaining the benefits of Facebook use. The few studies have considered impacts as one-dimensional; however, the literature shows that benefits could be conceptualized as an aggregate construct. Besides, little is known about using the Task-Technology Fit model (TTF) to assess Facebook. In addressing this gap, this study aims to develop and empirically test a model that explains Facebook benefits in a multidimensional way using a task-technology fit approach. Data collected from 240 Facebook users was analyzed using partial least squares technique (PLS). The results support the model empirically. This research integrates benefits, use, and task-technology fit into a single model to provide a more comprehensive perspective of Facebook use. Also, a multidimensional view allows us to consider both utilitarian and hedonic benefits as dimensions of value that can spawn greater continued use.
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    Investigating the Use, Adoption and Diffusion of Online Social Network Adoption (Facebook vs Twitter), within the Older Adult Population (50+) in Hertfordshire UK
    ( 2020-01-07) Chike-Obuekwe, Chikelue ; Choudrie, Jyoti ; Nwanekezie, Dr. Amaka ; Sundaram, David ; Peko, Gabrielle
    This study aims to Identify, understand, examine & explain the adoption, use & diffusion of Online Social Network's (OSNs); namely, Facebook vs Twitter within the older population of UK using a quantitative approach, a combination of hard copy and online questionnaires. This study used a random and non-random sampling, there were 266 completed replies obtained and analysed using structural equation modelling. This analysis revealed that older adults do not use OSNs for entertainment purposes, but more for effective purposes such as, communication or obtaining news information. It also explains how it provides contributions for academia, policy makers and industrial sectors and offers a conclusion to this paper.
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    An Approach to Building ICT Capabilities in Nonprofits
    ( 2020-01-07) Kamal, Mehruz
    Over the years, the Digital Divide has focused primarily on the fear that specific groups of people will be left behind in an increasingly technical world. Less, however, has been said about the probability of an organizational digital divide, e.g., that nonprofits may not have access to developing technical capability. The fundamental belief is that nonprofits are at a disadvantage when it comes to adopting and maintaining current information technology systems due to a variety of challenges that they face. The goal of this study was to investigate and assess such adoption through a very systematic and contextualized approach. An action research methodology was used to investigate a nonprofit organization in Western New York during a five-month timespan. The contribution of this study is in applying a modified adaptation of the capabilities framework to understand the nature of the grass-root level impact within the nonprofit from the technology adoption and use.
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    Gender Stereotyping’s Influence on the Perceived Competence of Siri and Co.
    ( 2020-01-07) Ernst, Claus-Peter ; Herm-Stapelberg, Nils
    Some users express frustration with regard to virtual assistants due to their lack of perceived competence. To address this negative perception, we believe that technology companies should be aware of gender stereotypes. More specifically, it has been shown that males are attributed with rational competence more often than females. Drawing from the CASA paradigm, which states that people regularly assign human traits to computers, we expect that this stereotype might also be present for virtual assistants, i.e., male-voice virtual assistants are perceived as being more competent than female-voice virtual assistants. We test this hypothesis by conducting a controlled experiment which simulates a realistic interaction with differently voiced virtual assistants. The results indicate that gender stereotypes indeed play a role in the perception of the interaction. Male-voiced assistants are perceived more competent than their female-voiced counterpart which has practical implications in the design and development of devices that utilize these assistants.
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    Probing Athletes’ Perceptions Towards Electronic Judging Systems – A Case Study in Gymnastics
    ( 2020-01-07) Mazurova, Elena ; Penttinen, Esko
    We study athletes’ perceptions towards the transition to electronic judging systems. Using purposive sampling, we select an area of sports that is undergoing a somewhat disruptive change in the way athletes are evaluated: gymnastics. We draw on interviews conducted with gymnasts to probe their perceptions of electronic judging systems. We find that gymnasts are quite positive towards the implementation of these systems, although they expressed some uncertainties (i.e. how these systems influence the artistic side of gymnastics) and risks (i.e. technical problems) of the technology. The positive side of the transition to electronic judging systems mainly relates to the deficiencies of the human-based judging, it being vulnerable to biases, human error, human fatigue, judges’ personal preferences, and inherent lack of explanation. Our informants expressed that electronic judging systems contain affordances that could efficiently mitigate the said challenges associated with human-based judging.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on The Diffusion, Impacts, Adoption and Usage of ICTs upon Society
    ( 2020-01-07) Choudrie, Jyoti ; Sundaram, David ; Kurnia, Sherah