Monitoring, Control, and Protection Minitrack

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This minitrack focuses on topics related to the monitoring, control, and protection of electric power systems for real-time operations and short-term operations planning. Innovations that focus on recent developments in the area of large-scale dynamic research for power systems and on hybrid and distributed control concepts for decentralized command and control of existing critical energy infrastructures are specifically sought for this year’s program.

Minitrack Chair:

Joseph H. Eto
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Session 1: Large Scale Dynamics and Control
Session Organizer and Session Chair: Mani Venkatasubramanian,

Power system is a large-scale nonlinear system consisting of hundreds of dynamic components including synchronous generators and their controls, nonlinear loads, and complex power electronic devices such as in wind generators and in flexible transmission controllers. Modeling and simulation of the underlying large-scale differential-algebraic equations are essential for understanding fundamental questions in power system planning and operations. Recent measurement based real-time monitoring and control algorithms are providing a renewed look at the dynamic phenomena of interconnected power system through synchronized wide- area measurements in the form of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). With the availability of such large-scale synchronized measurements available in the power system today, there is an urgent need to combine model based power system dynamic research and measurement based monitoring and control algorithms towards advancing real-time operational reliability of electric power grids. Increased reactive power demands during unplanned for events such as from geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) can push the system towards voltage collapse scenarios. This session will showcase recent developments in the area of large-scale dynamic research in the power system area.

Session 2: Distributed Decision and Control
Session Organizer and Session Chair: David P. Chassin,

This session addresses distributed control concepts that can be integrated into more decentralized command and control of existing critical energy infrastructures. The world's developed economies will increasingly be required to manage heterogeneous and dispersed infrastructure-scale systems of systems such as our critical energy, power, computing and transportation systems. There is an emerging recognition of the need for new control techniques that will allow us to develop, test and integrate distributed resources with growing dispersed intelligence and diverging objectives. Papers will present new control theory, tools and testbeds that support the development of a sound scientific basis for controlling large-scale energy infrastructure using diverse resources including distributed generation and loads. They will address the fundamental obstacles to generalizable methodologies for controlling large-scale complex engineered systems while economically and reliably achieving evolving local and global performance objectives.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
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    The Use of System in the Loop, Hardware in the Loop, and Co-modeling of Cyber-Physical Systems in Developing and Evaluating New Smart Grid Solutions
    ( 2017-01-04) Kezunovic, Mladen ; Esmailian, Ahad ; Govindarasu, Manimaran ; Mehrizi-Sani, Ali
    This paper deals with two issues: development of some advanced smart grid applications, and implementation of advanced testbeds to evaluate these applications. In each of the development cases, the role of the testbeds is explained and evaluation results are presented. The applications cover the synchrophasor systems, interfacing of microgrids to the main grid, and cybersecurity solutions. The paper hypothesizes that the use of the advanced testbeds is beneficial for the development process since the solution product-to-market cycle may be shortened due to early real-life demonstrations. In addition, solution users’ feedback to the testbed demonstration can be incorporated at an early stage when making the changes is not as costly as doing it at more mature development stages.
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    Source Location of Forced Oscillations Using Synchrophasor and SCADA Data
    ( 2017-01-04) OBrien, James ; Wu, Tianying ; Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan ; Zhang, Hongming
    Recent advances in synchrophasor based oscillation monitoring algorithms have allowed engineers to detect oscillation issues that may have previously gone undetected. Although such an oscillation can be flagged and its oscillation shape can indicate the general vicinity of its source, low number of synchrophasors means that a specific generator or load that is the root cause of an oscillation cannot easily be pinpointed. Fortunately, SCADA serves as a much more readily available telemetered source of data if only at a relatively low sampling rate of 1 sample every 1 to 10 seconds. This paper shows that it is possible to combine synchrophasor and SCADA data for effective source location of forced oscillations. For multiple recent oscillation events, the proposed automatic methods were successful in correct identification of the oscillation source which was confirmed in each case by discussion with respective generation plant owners.
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    Parameter Sensitivity and Dependency Analysis for the WECC Dynamic Composite Load Model
    ( 2017-01-04) Zhang, Kaiqing ; Guo, Siming ; Zhu, Hao
    An accurate dynamic load model plays a crucial role in the analysis of power system transient stability. The WECC dynamic composite load model (CMPLDW) has been developed recently to better represent fault-induced delayed-voltage-recovery (FIDVR) events, which are of increasing concern to electric utilities. To facilitate the understanding of the CMPLDW, it is worth studying the effect of parameters that describe the model structure on its dynamic response. In this paper, we show that 1) some parameters have very minimal sensitivities under certain FIDVR events; 2) sensitivities of certain parameters are strongly dependent on the temporal profile of given fault, such as its minimum fault voltage or recovery time; and 3) some parameters share similar sensitivity patterns and thus the change of their values may complement each other. These observations are essential for further developing enhanced measurement-based dynamic load modeling approaches by tackling the parameter identifiability issues pointed out in the present work.
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    Optimal Multisine Probing Signal Design for Power System Electromechanical Mode Estimation
    ( 2017-01-04) Perić, Vedran ; Bombois, Xavier ; Vanfretti, Luigi
    This paper proposes a methodology for the design of a probing signal used for power system electromechanical mode estimation. Firstly, it is shown that probing mode estimation accuracy depends solely on the probing signal’s power spectrum and not on a specific time-domain realization. A relationship between the probing power spectrum and the accuracy of the mode estimation is used to determine a multisine probing signal by solving an optimization problem. The objective function is defined as a weighting sum of the probing signal variance and the level of the system disturbance caused by the probing. A desired level of the mode estimation accuracy is set as a constraint. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through simulations using the KTH Nordic 32 power system model.
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    On the Scaling Property of Power Grids
    ( 2017-01-04) Wang, Zhifang ; Elyas, Seyyed Hamid
    Compared with other natural or man-made networks, electric power grid assumes distinct "electric" topology with special small-world properties and electrical parameter settings. In this paper we study the scaling property of power grid in terms of both topology measures and electric parameters, with a number of realistic power grid test cases of different size. The examined measures and parameters include average node degree, average path length, algebraic connectivity, the bus type entropy that characterize relative locations of generation and load buses, generation capacity, total demand, and transmission capacity. Interpreting and testing the scaling property of power grid will help us better understand the intrinsic characteristics of electric energy delivery network of this critical infrastructure; and enable the development of an appropriate synthetic modeling that could be utilized to generate power grid test cases with accurate grid topology and electric parameters.
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    Demand Dispatch with Heterogeneous Intelligent Loads
    ( 2017-01-04) Mathias, Joel ; Busic, Ana ; Meyn, Sean
    A distributed control architecture is presented that is intended to make a collection of heterogeneous loads appear to the grid operator as a nearly perfect battery. Local control is based on randomized decision rules advocated in prior research, and extended in this paper to any load with a discrete number of power states. Additional linear filtering at the load ensures that the input-output dynamics of the aggregate has a nearly flat input-output response: the behavior of an ideal, multi-GW battery system. \ \
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    Breaker to Control Center Integration & Automation: Protection, Control, Operation & Optimization
    ( 2017-01-04) Meliopoulos, Sakis ; Cokkinides, George ; Farantatos, Evangelos ; Myrda, Paul
    Recent technological advances in protection, control and optimization are enabling a more automated power system. This paper proposes the use of these technologies towards an integrated and seamless infrastructure for protection, control and operation. This infrastructure is the basis for accommodating and providing robust solutions to new problems arising from the integration of renewables, namely more uncertainty and steeper ramp rates. At the lower level we propose a dynamic state estimation of a protection zone (EBP) for the purpose of providing protection for the zone. The estimation based protection (EBP) provides the real time dynamic model of the zone as well as the real time operating conditions. Since protection is ubiquitous, it can cover the full system. We assume that GPS synchronization of the EBP is available providing accurate time tags for the real time model and operating conditions. The real time model and operating conditions can extent from the “turbine to the toaster”. We propose a methodology for automatically constructing the power system state locally and centrally at the control center with distributed controls as well as centralized controls depending on the application. For example, the centralized \ system wide real time model is used to perform system optimization functions, and then send commands back through the same communication structure to specific power system components. Since protection is ubiquitous and the modern power system has several layers of communication infrastructure, the proposed approach is realizable with very small investment. The availability of the real time dynamic model and state locally and centrally enables the seamless integration of applications. Three applications are discussed in the paper: (a) setting-less protection, (b) voltage/var control and (c) feeder load flexibility scheduling. The proposed approach and infrastructure can form the basis for the next generation of Energy Management Systems. \
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