Volume 26 – March 1986 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Low pH as the Limiting Factor for Survival of the Mosquito Larvivorous Fish, Poecilia reticulatus, in Impounded Sugar Mill Wastewater
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Toyama, Gary M.
    Acidity below pH 5.5 caused asphyxiation of P. reticulatus despite adequate dissolved oxygen and low levels of carbon dioxide in sugar mill wastewater. Clogging of gills with precipitated iron when acidity fell below pH 5.5 is suspected of causing asphyxiation. No fish survived below pH 4.8 even at high DO and low CO2 levels. Survival of60% occurred between pH 4.9-5.3, while all fish survived above pH 5.5 even at low DO (0.3 ppm) and high CO2 (250 ppm) levels. Primary cause of low pH and high CO; levels was biological decomposition of suspended microscopic particles of sugar cane stalks. Major source of this material is from sludge precipitated by lime during clarification of cane juice. Separation of this sludge may increase pH in impounded wastewater to tolerable levels for fish survival.
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    Wood-Consumption Rate and Survival of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) when Fed One of Six Woods Used Commercially in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Su, Nan-Yao ; Tamashiro, Minoru
    Redwood and cedar were the most resistant or least preferred woods of the 6 wood species fed to the Formosan subterranean termite. Significantly more Ponderosa pine, spruce, hemlock and Douglas fir were consumed than redwood or cedar. There were no statistically significant differences in consumption between redwood and cedar and no significant differences in the amounts of the other 4 wood species consumed. Both redwood and cedar apparently were not completely suitable food for the termites. 100% of the termites fed redwood died within 3 weeks and approximately 50% of those fed cedar died in the same period.
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    Behavioral Characteristics of Hawaiian Drosophila
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Spieth, Herman T.
    Hawaiian endemic Drosophila exhibit a suite of unique behaviors which differentiate them sharply from continental species. These behaviors appear to have evolved as responses to predation pressures. The native avian honeycreepers and the Elepaio appear to have been the prime predators but hunting spiders, Araneida, and predatory flies, Lispocephala spp., are active predators on the drosophilids and probably also have influenced the evolution of the flies.
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    Development, Oviposition and Longevity of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Paulson, G.S. ; Beardsley, J.W.
    Development of the woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) was observed on seedling lemon plants maintained at ambient temperature (ave. 22.5°C) and relative humidity. Total developmental lime from egg-to-adult averaged 27.4 ± 2.2 d. Peak adult emergence occurred between 0600 and 0900. Developmental rates and peak time of adult emergence were similar to those of other whiteflies recorded in literature. Oviposition began within 1 day after emergence and averaged 53.2 ± 9.3 eggs/female. Average adult longevity was 36.4 ± 13.6 d.
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    Additional Alternate Hosts of the Sweetpotato Weevils Cylas formicarius elegantulus and Euscepes postfasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Muruvanda, Devaiah A. ; Beardsley, John W. ; Mitchell, Wallace C.
    Laboratory and field studies of food preferences and alternate hosts were conducted with the sweetpotato weevils Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) and Euscepes posfasciatus (Fairmairc). Results demonstrated that carrot roots could be an alternate host for C. formicarius elegantulus larvae and adults. Radish roots could serve as an alternate host for only adult survival, for both species of weevils. Among the convolvulaceous hosts recorded, Ipomoea horsfalliae Hook and /. obscura (L.) Ker. are new hosts for C. formicarius elegantulus.