Volume 26 – March 1986 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Low pH as the Limiting Factor for Survival of the Mosquito Larvivorous Fish, Poecilia reticulatus, in Impounded Sugar Mill Wastewater
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Toyama, Gary M.
    Acidity below pH 5.5 caused asphyxiation of P. reticulatus despite adequate dissolved oxygen and low levels of carbon dioxide in sugar mill wastewater. Clogging of gills with precipitated iron when acidity fell below pH 5.5 is suspected of causing asphyxiation. No fish survived below pH 4.8 even at high DO and low CO2 levels. Survival of60% occurred between pH 4.9-5.3, while all fish survived above pH 5.5 even at low DO (0.3 ppm) and high CO2 (250 ppm) levels. Primary cause of low pH and high CO; levels was biological decomposition of suspended microscopic particles of sugar cane stalks. Major source of this material is from sludge precipitated by lime during clarification of cane juice. Separation of this sludge may increase pH in impounded wastewater to tolerable levels for fish survival.
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    Wood-Consumption Rate and Survival of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) when Fed One of Six Woods Used Commercially in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Su, Nan-Yao ; Tamashiro, Minoru
    Redwood and cedar were the most resistant or least preferred woods of the 6 wood species fed to the Formosan subterranean termite. Significantly more Ponderosa pine, spruce, hemlock and Douglas fir were consumed than redwood or cedar. There were no statistically significant differences in consumption between redwood and cedar and no significant differences in the amounts of the other 4 wood species consumed. Both redwood and cedar apparently were not completely suitable food for the termites. 100% of the termites fed redwood died within 3 weeks and approximately 50% of those fed cedar died in the same period.
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    Behavioral Characteristics of Hawaiian Drosophila
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Spieth, Herman T.
    Hawaiian endemic Drosophila exhibit a suite of unique behaviors which differentiate them sharply from continental species. These behaviors appear to have evolved as responses to predation pressures. The native avian honeycreepers and the Elepaio appear to have been the prime predators but hunting spiders, Araneida, and predatory flies, Lispocephala spp., are active predators on the drosophilids and probably also have influenced the evolution of the flies.
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    Development, Oviposition and Longevity of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Paulson, G.S. ; Beardsley, J.W.
    Development of the woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) was observed on seedling lemon plants maintained at ambient temperature (ave. 22.5°C) and relative humidity. Total developmental lime from egg-to-adult averaged 27.4 ± 2.2 d. Peak adult emergence occurred between 0600 and 0900. Developmental rates and peak time of adult emergence were similar to those of other whiteflies recorded in literature. Oviposition began within 1 day after emergence and averaged 53.2 ± 9.3 eggs/female. Average adult longevity was 36.4 ± 13.6 d.
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    Additional Alternate Hosts of the Sweetpotato Weevils Cylas formicarius elegantulus and Euscepes postfasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Muruvanda, Devaiah A. ; Beardsley, John W. ; Mitchell, Wallace C.
    Laboratory and field studies of food preferences and alternate hosts were conducted with the sweetpotato weevils Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) and Euscepes posfasciatus (Fairmairc). Results demonstrated that carrot roots could be an alternate host for C. formicarius elegantulus larvae and adults. Radish roots could serve as an alternate host for only adult survival, for both species of weevils. Among the convolvulaceous hosts recorded, Ipomoea horsfalliae Hook and /. obscura (L.) Ker. are new hosts for C. formicarius elegantulus.
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    Introductions for Biological Control in Hawaii: 1983 and 1984
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Lai, P.Y. ; Funasaki, G.Y.
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    Development of the Sterile-Insect Technique on the Island of Lanai, Hawaii, for Suppression of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Harris, Ernest J. ; Cunningham, Roy T. ; Tanaka, Norimitsu ; Ohinata, Kiichi ; Schroeder, William J.
    Sterile Mediterranean fruit flies were released on the island of Lanai in a pilot development program to demonstrate the ability of the laboratory strain to suppress the wild population. Sterile flies were released as adults or pupae from the air or from sites on the ground. Utilization of different release methods provided flexibility in scheduling releases to overcome problems of wild fly distribution, terrain and weather. The sterile flies suppressed the wild population 99% below the pre-treatment level for 6 months, as evidenced by reductions of larval infestations in guava. The sterile-insect release method was effective in spite of entry of gravid females from the upwind island of Maui, and was shown to be well-suited for eradication of localized populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the Hawaiian Islands.
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    The Orchid Weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse): Insecticidal Control and Effect on Vanda Orchid Production
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Hara, Arnold H. ; Mau, Ronald F.L.
    Control of the orchid weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waierhouse) with acephate 75SP, bendiocarb 76WP, chlorpyrifos 2.0EC, and microencapsulated methyl parathion 2.0F significantly increased the number of marketable flowers of Vanda "Miss Joaquim" and decreased the number of unmarketable, white streaked flowers. The significant reduction in larval infestations, adult feeding injury and the rate of white streaked flowers in insecticide-treated vanda plants suggests that orchid weevil infestation and/or injury may be responsible for white streaked flowers. The relatively long life cycle of 144 days and the toxicity of tested insecticides to only the adult stage of the orchid weevil were probably reasons which made it necessary to apply 6 spray applications before a severe infestation (> 14 weevils per week) was reduced to a minimum level (<4 weevils per week) in Vanda "Miss Joaquim."
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    Effects of Certain Insecticides on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its Parasitoids on Chrysanthemums in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Hara, Arnold H.
    Cyromazine and abamectin were the most efficacious insecticides against Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) on potted- and cut-chrysanthemums. Oxamyl, oxamyl plus methomyl (tank-mix),and permethrin plus microencapsulated methyl parathion (tank-mix) were also effective against L.trifolii No adverse effects of tested insecticides to the leafminer parasitoids, Diglyphus intermedius (Girault) and Ganaspidium hunteri (Crawford) were observed. Results emphasized that permethrin and microencapsulated methyl parathion were effective in a tank-mix, but not when used separately. The ineffectiveness of permethrin or microencapsulated methyl parathion alone may be indicative of L trifolii developing resistance to these insecticides.
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    The Induction of Gall Formation in Ageratina riparia by Procecidochares alani (Diptera: Tephritidae). I. Gall Histology and Internal Gross Morphology of the Third Instar
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1986-03) Hapai, Marlene N. ; Chang, Franklin
    Gall formation in the composite, Ageratina riparia, is induced by the presence and activity of the larval stages of the gall-forming tephritid, Procecidochares alani (Steyskal). The tephritid spends its entire larval stage in the subapical area of the stem and its activity causes the formation of a bulbous shaped gall. Histological examination of the gall reveals an abundance of secretory ducts external and sometimes internal to the vascular cylinder; doubled vascular bundles; "faisceaux d'irrigation"; an increase in phloem and pith parenchyma accompanied by a decrease in xylem; nutritive cells; and an increase in stem diameter due to hyperplasia of the pith area. Morphologically, P. alani third instars possess structures generally characteristic of other cyclorrhaphous dipteran larvae. However, a yellowish membranous structure was found attached to the distal part of the most anterior pair of Malpighian tubules which appears to be unique to gall flies in the genus Procecidochares. This pair of structures, termed "yellow bodies," increases in size with each succeeding instar, decreases in size during pupariation, and is absent 2 to 3 days into the pupal stage. The proposed function of this structure is discussed.