Culture, International Business, and Knowledge Systems

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    Contrasting Internationalization Paths of Product- and Service-oriented Software Firms
    ( 2019-01-08) Ojala, Arto ; Rönkkö, Mikko ; Peltonen, Juhana
    The internationalization of software firms has been widely researched topic over the last two decades. However, the most of the studies have treated software firms as a homogeneous group, ignoring the fact that software firms actually differ greatly in terms of having either a product or a service orientation. Based on earlier literature, we hypothesized that software product firms would show a tendency to internationalize earlier and at a smaller size than software service firms, and that product firms would show a greater tendency to target countries that are both geographically and culturally distant. In fact, we found no support for most of our hypotheses, with relatively strong and statistically significant results emerging in the opposite direction. We offer several explanations for these counterintuitive findings.
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    Framework for Externalization of Tacit Knowledge in Participatory Agricultural Research in Ethiopia: The Case of Farmers Research Group (FRG)
    ( 2019-01-08) Semeon, Getahun ; Garfield, Monica
    The externalization of tacit knowledge is an important phase for knowledge creation, diffusion & utilization. The purpose of this study is to explore how different forms of tacit knowledge are externalized by taking a participatory agricultural research group as a case study for the surfacing, codifying and transferring of tacit knowledge. We conducted a qualitative case study that used semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, observation and document analysis. The study revealed that the dominant forms of tacit knowledge externalized in this participatory agricultural research group fall under a low degree of tacitness (practical skills, lived experiences, rules-of-thumb and expertise) and a medium degree of tacitness (judgments, insights, practical intelligence and indigenous knowledge). Tacit knowledge externalization mechanisms identified include metaphor, storytelling, dialogue, apprenticeship or mentoring, experimentation and evaluation, observation, learning by doing, lessons learnt, modeling technique, localization and on-farm demonstration. A tacit knowledge externalization framework is proposed for the study context.
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    The Effect of Paradoxical Tensions Between Confucian Culture and Organizational Culture on Fear and Knowledge Sharing Intention
    ( 2019-01-08) Han, Jinyoung ; Hovav, Anat
    Individuals often encounter challenges balancing collaboration and competition in organizational life. Although paradoxes exist in all organizations, there is minimal empirical research investigating paradoxical tensions at the micro level. Furthermore, previous organizational studies have overlooked employees emotionally driven acts. To fill these research gap, this study examined the paradoxical relationships between espoused cultural values, perceived organizational culture, negative emotions (fear of social exclusion), and knowledge sharing in South Korean organizations. The results show that paradoxical tensions between espoused Confucian culture and knowledge sharing supportive culture result in fear of social exclusion. Subsequently, fear of social exclusion has a negative association with knowledge sharing intention. This study contributes to micro-level research of paradoxes by examining the paradoxes of belonging and of performance at the individual level and their influence on employees’ knowledge-sharing behavior.
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    Relational Learning and Organizational Cultural Intelligence
    ( 2019-01-08) Rollins, Minna
    Learning occurs at the individual and organizational, as well as within one organization and in interaction in a network of organizations. This paper explores relational learning, inter-organizational setting, in the cross-cultural setting. Relational learning includes in: information sharing, joint sense-making, and integration of knowledge among two or more organizations or partners. We propose that national cultural differences, values, and context of communication, influence relational learning, but organizational cultural intelligence translates relational learning to relationship performance. We conclude our paper with implications for managers/organizations and the avenues for future research.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Culture, International Business, and Knowledge Systems
    ( 2019-01-08) Rollins, Minna ; Gabrielsson, Mika ; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini