Politics and Security [Working Papers]
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ItemRepression and punishment in North Korea : survey evidence of prison camp experiences(Honolulu: East-West Center, 2009)The penal system has played a central role in the North Korean government's response to the country's profound economic and social changes. Two refugee surveys--one conducted in China, one in South Korea--document its changing role. The regime disproportionately targets politically suspect groups, particularly those involved in market-oriented economic activities. Levels of violence and deprivation do not appear to differ substantially between the infamous political prison camps, penitentiaries for felons, and labor camps used to incarcerate individuals for misdemeanors, including economic crimes. Substantial numbers of those incarcerated report experiencing deprivation with respect to food as well as public executions and other forms of violence. This repression appears to work; despite substantial cynicism about the North Korean system, refugees do not report signs of collective action aimed at confronting the regime. Such a system may also reflect ulterior motives. High levels of discretion with respect to arrest and sentencing and very high costs of detention, arrest and incarceration encourage bribery; the more arbitrary and painful the experience with the penal system, the easier it is for officials to extort money for avoiding it. These characteristics not only promote regime maintenance through intimidation, but may facilitate predatory corruption as well.
ItemDemocratic America in Northeast Asia : U.S. strategy, theater missile defense, and allied defense relationships(Honolulu: East-West Center, 2002)
ItemCorruption and public trust : perspectives on Japan and East Asia(Honolulu: East-West Center, 2000)
ItemAmerican military presence in the southern Philippines : a comparative historical overview(Honolulu: East-West Center, 2004)This paper was presented at the workshop In Whose Interests? The Future of the US Military in Asia, held at the East-West Center, February 20-22, 2003. As an initial review of how the current US military presence in Mindanao is viewed locally, this working paper will form the basis of discussion for the Philippine case study for a cross-national study of how citizens in Asia view the presence of US forces within their society.
ItemGambling on a gambler : high stakes for the Philippine presidency(Honolulu: East-West Center, 2000)After 29 months in office Philippine President Joseph Estrada's administration is on the verge of collapse, with daily calls for his resignation mounting as impeachment proceedings move forward. This economic and political crisis is headlined in newspapers as juetengate, an illegal nationwide numbers game from which Estrada is alleged to have reaped millions. Yet jueteng betting is as time-honored an activity by residents of many Philippine communities as is bingo for residents of many U.S. towns. While the size of the proceeds Estrada was said to be receiving may have startled some, other factors contributed significantly to the current political conflagration. This working paper discusses how and why Estrada's problems are much deeper than gambling alone.