Honors Projects for History

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    The Great War and the German-American Communities in Hawai‘i, 1914-1918
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014) Velez, Cheyenne ; Hoffenberg, Peter H. ; History
    During the Great War (the First World War), fear of Germans ran rampant amongst the Entente Powers, especially in the United States which would officially join the war efforts in 1917. This fear was not only found in the large continental powers near the front lines but also as far as the small Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Many could not have anticipated the severity of the effects on the German communities within the Island chain, which had become a home for many Germans since as early as the mid-1800s. Over the course of the war, many people turned against the German communities in Hawai‘i, despite being so far removed from the battlegrounds in Europe, and it resulted in the marginalization of those communities. This thesis analyzes why that fear existed in Hawai‘i as well as how it followed a similar pattern to what was taking place across the continental U.S. almost simultaneously, namely through “hyphenism” and accusations of spy activity. This thesis also demonstrates how this was due to the changing relationship between the U.S. and Hawai‘i, as Hawai‘i became a U.S. Territory in 1898, thereby allowing for more radical anti-German ideology to permeate the Hawaiian Islands. As we commemorate the centennial anniversary of the start of the War, this research aims to draw awareness to one of the lesser discussed issues of that time period: the history of the marginalization of Germans living in Hawai‘i.
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    Henry George’s Contribution to Socialism in America, 1870-1900
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Ko, Emily ; Hoffenberg, Peter H. ; History
    The Gilded Age was a period of industrial development in the United States from approximately 1870 to 1900. In many ways, it helped to usher in the modern world. With the large growth in business, there also arose a displacement among workers who were migrating from farms to cities and adapting to new methods of management and business. This dissatisfaction led to the creation of labor unions and the spread of socialism in America. Henry George (1839 to 1897), a political and social leader of this period, was inspired to write his manifesto, Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions, and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy, by the social conditions he witnessed. Many socialist thinkers during the Gilded Age and since read George’s work and were struck by its socialist leanings. In their writings, most of them conceded that George contributed to bringing socialist ideas to the public with his bestseller. However, some thinkers took issue with his single land tax principle that they judged to be overrated or not radical enough. George has been largely overlooked in the history of the Gilded Age, but during George’s life, Progress and Poverty reached the minds of reformers, politicians, writers, lecturers, and social leaders.
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    Masters of La Mode: Representations of Women in the French Fashion Press, 1785-99
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Kam, Miranda ; Lauzon, Matthew ; History
    This project examines representations of women in the French fashion press from its beginning in 1785 to Napoleon’s coup d’état in 1799. During the French Revolution, certain women wore ‘masculine’ Revolutionary symbols to facilitate their participation in revolutionary processes. Many saw the actions of these women as threats to masculine citizenship and in 1793, the increased controversy surrounding dress forced the National Convention to declare freedom of dress for all citizens and citizenesses. Some historians have contended that Revolutionary legislators granted women freedom in fashion largely as a substitute for genuine political power in the emerging public sphere. This project argues that although revolutionary processes may have granted women freedom of fashion, the male-dominated fashion press attempted to undermine women’s authority and assert men’s control in an area in which it claimed women possessed legitimate power. Through the close analysis of 18th -century fashion periodicals, this project determines that while fashion periodicals claimed to venerate women and their talents in the realm of fashion, they employed concepts like the relationship between dress and behaviors to dictate women’s dress. Although the fashion press initially celebrated women as the creators and masters of fashion, the fashion press editors later used their professed adoration of women to persuade them to surrender their freedom of dress. By regulating women’s consumptive and sartorial habits, the fashion press helped to alleviate contemporaries’ concerns about women’s participation in the public sphere.
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    “If It Were My Way, All This Ought to Be Red”: George Thomas and the Frontier of the British Empire 1781-1802
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-12) Miller, Devon ; Daniel, Marcus ; History
    In 1805, a printer in England published a tale of imperialism, conquest and tragic loss from a memoir from Calcutta, India. Sponsored by key figures of the British Indian Administration, the Military Memoirs of Mr. George Thomas tells the story of a poor Irish Catholic boy who, in the midst of the war torn Maratha Empire, India in the 19th Century, carved out his own kingdom on the edge of the Punjabi. Succeeding in the chaotic maelstrom of violence, constantly shifting loyalties and political intrigue, his tale would be considered to be of ‘great interest’ to the British public by contemporaries. This project explores George Thomas’ story, analyzing who this man was, where he fits within his world, and why his story was told through the use of narratives, letters, and governmental debates. While it is clear the author of the memoir wished to portray Thomas as a quintessential British patriot and soldier, it is equally clear that this portrayal of the man was not the reality. Adopting the pretensions of Nationalistic loyalty out of sheer pragmatism, Thomas was a proud, competent and ambitious man who, over the course of his life propagated three imperiums: Mahratta, British, and his own. This project helps us to understand the political reality of the Maratha Empire during 1780-1802 and a 19th Century Catholic Irishman’s understanding of loyalty, honor, self-identity, and his place within his world, allowing us in turn to reflect upon ours.
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    Old Wine, New Skins: Models of Roman Leadership in the Court of Charlemagne
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015-12) Brewbaker, Katarina A. ; Jolly, Karen Louise ; History
    Modern western society looks back on the Roman Empire as a model for politics, economics, and social relations. The use of the Roman Empire as a foundation for political organization began in the Early Middle Ages with the development of the idea of Christian kingship following the conversion to Christianity of Emperor Constantine (c.747-814). However, early medieval Francia adapted Roman principles selectively, and not primarily on the model of Constantine. During his rule of the Frankish Empire, Charlemagne (c.747-814) and his court consciously chose and incorporated elements from the first Emperor Augustus, as well as borrowed and reused Roman architecture. A comparison of ancient and Frankish historical, biographical, literary, and chronicle sources reveals how Frankish courtiers amended these Roman imperial ideas to establish Charlemagne’s Christian rulership, in part through an educational reform program and the establishment of royal court at Aächen modeled on Ravenna. Set against the backdrop of an emerging Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, Charlemagne’s court helped establish the legacy of Christian kingship usually attributed to Constantine.
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    A Psychological Biography of Lafcadio Hearn
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014-09-26) Young, Diane ; Akita, George ; History
    During his fourteen-year sojourn in Japan, (1890-1904) Lafcadio Hearn produced eleven books and innumerable articles about his adopted homeland, becoming the initial and most legendary interpreter of Japan to the West. His fascination with the mysteries of the Orient commenced upon first viewing the Japanese display at the 1884 New Orleans exposition. The fragile miniature-like artifacts stirred his appreciation for beauty and color and created images of a desired exotic environment. Several years later Hearn read Perceval Lowell's book, The Soul of the Far East, which introduced him to the philosophical stimulation of Asia. Dissatisfied with the progressing modernity and ensuing confusion of New York and encouraged by the promise of Harper's Monthly to publish acceptable material from Japan, he ventured toward the East. Thus accompanied by C. V. Weldon, a Harper's photographer, Lafcadio Hearn; approaching his fortieth birthday, arrived in Yokohama, Japan in the spring of 1890 to live out the remaining fourteen years of his life and write his greatest masterpieces.
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    The Constitutional Development of English Parliaments in the Fifteenth Century
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014-09-26) Yonamine, Keith ; History
    The study of fifteenth century English constitutional history covers a period of great political, military, and social turmoil in the era of much-romanticized "War of the Roses." Yet often overshadowed and even ignored, in this century of violence, civil wars, and the general decay of law and order, is the constitutional development that occurred in parliament. The records of fiftieth century England, the Rolls of Parliament, Statutes of the Realm, Paston Letters, and various chronicles, vividly recount the tumultuous acts of armed violence that periodically erupted throughout England during this troubled century. Historians reasoned that this era's lawlessness was due to weakening central government power: The steady decline in the prestige and resources of the monarchy since the end of the fortieth century had brought disaster and decadence to the government, and had made civil wars… inevitable. The extreme weakness of the … king[ship] under Henry VI [r. 1422-61 deposed, 1470-1 deposed, killed] had gravely jeopardized law and justice, administration, and economic development… The fifteenth century opened with the suspicious death (most likely murder) of the unlawfully deposed Richard II (r. 1377-99 and deposed) in 1400, witnessed the reversed fortunes of the English military despite the spectacular victories of the great warrior king, Henry V (r.1413-22), recorded the pitiful reigns of Henry VI (who was twice deposed and ignominiously murdered in 1471), chronicled the successes and failures of the three Yorkist kings Edward IV (r. 1461-70 and deposed; 1471-83 restored), Edward V (reigned, deposed, and probably murdered in 1483), and Richard III (r. 1483-5, killed), and finally closed with the authoritarian but peaceful rule of the shrewd Machiavellian, Henry VII Tudor (r. 1485-1509).
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    Presidential Executive Agreements
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014-09-26) Yonamine, Ann ; History
    Under the Constitution of the United States, the President has the "power by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate to make Treaties." A treaty is defined as "a compact made between two or more independent nations." The definition for an executive agreement is "(an) understanding or agreement of the United States, (made by the President), with other nations which can lead to and obligate the United States to significant commitments with foreign parities without the advice and consent of the Senate.” Both treaties and executive agreements are the means through which international bonds are made. In fact, executive agreements may even be considered as treaties for "the mere designation of the instrument by another name does not prevent its being a treaty if it is such in substance." There are three categories of executive agreements: the first involves those agreements which are created pursuant to an existing treaty; the second are agreements produced under the joint authority of the President and Congress; and the last division consists of agreements concluded based on the independent authority of the President – these agreements are known as "presidential executive agreements." With the exception of the last category, executive agreements are very similar to the treaties in that the agreements which are made by the President incorporates Senate participation.
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    The Zion Legacy: The Colonial Climate and the American Revolution
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014-09-26) Yazawa, Melvin ; History
    John Adams in 1801, reflecting on the American Revolution would insist that "the apprehension of Episcopacy contributed … as much as any other cause, to arouse the attention not only of the inquiring mind, but of the common people, and urge them to close thinking on the constitutional authority of parliament over the colonials." Vital to the understanding of the origins of the Revolution is a realization that irrational fears were as significant--if not more--in shaping the colonial stand as were rational arguments. Fears of corruption and sin, episcopacy and tyranny, were in part a colonial inheritance from Zion ancestors. Irrational discomforts, complemented by a judicious reading of Whig authors, were interwoven into the affairs of state. This moral-religious aura enhanced the controversy over imperial organization, complicated the issues of taxation and sovereignty, crippled the propensity to compromise, and made the final separation less difficult. Divergent interpretations of Parliamentary power resulted in conflicts; fundamental assumptions ware challenged. The British attitude, stemming from a tradition of success, strengthened preconceptions of colonial subordination and restricted effective adaption. The colonial mind, distrusting the nature of man, especially in relation to power, received little reassurance on the limitations of Parliamentary enactments. Frustration, mutually produced, whetted the scythe or suspicion so that it cut deeper into the minds of both.
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    Katsura Taro: From Drummer-Boy To Army Minister
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014-09-26) Yanagihara, Tomoyo ; History
    In her book Practicing History, Barbara Tuchman reminds her readers that a biography is a means by which the reader becomes acquainted with a particular period in history in which the protagonist supplies the lead to many events and introduces a wide range of interesting people he meets. A biography is also a narrative of an individual; of how he lived and of his accomplishments. This paper is an account of the life and times of Katsura Taro, who sought to become a soldier in Japan’s Imperial Army at a time when Japan was looking to the West to choose those institutions which would be useful for the country’s present and future developments. It was a time when the feudal institutions of Tokugawa Japan were being reformed by visionary leaders who were seeking to strengthen their country with Western arms and knowledge. The years from 1847 to mid-1901 spanned the last two decades of the Tokugawa rule and three decades of the Meiji period, paralleling Katsura’s birth and his rise to power in the political world. This period saw some of the most profound changes in Japanese history; how internal and external forces opened “Japan’s doors” to the West and how the forces caused the downfall of the Tokugawa Shogunate and restored the country to Imperial rule. Katsura Taro belonged to the generation of samurai children who were born in the declining years of the Tokugawa period, but with the spirit of bushido (way of the warrior) still very much alive, they were educated and disciplined in the samurai ideals of honor, duty, loyalty, courage, and self-sacrifice, together with the Confucian ethics of filial piety.