Honors Projects for History

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    The Great War and the German-American Communities in Hawai‘i, 1914-1918
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014) Velez, Cheyenne ; Hoffenberg, Peter H. ; History
    During the Great War (the First World War), fear of Germans ran rampant amongst the Entente Powers, especially in the United States which would officially join the war efforts in 1917. This fear was not only found in the large continental powers near the front lines but also as far as the small Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Many could not have anticipated the severity of the effects on the German communities within the Island chain, which had become a home for many Germans since as early as the mid-1800s. Over the course of the war, many people turned against the German communities in Hawai‘i, despite being so far removed from the battlegrounds in Europe, and it resulted in the marginalization of those communities. This thesis analyzes why that fear existed in Hawai‘i as well as how it followed a similar pattern to what was taking place across the continental U.S. almost simultaneously, namely through “hyphenism” and accusations of spy activity. This thesis also demonstrates how this was due to the changing relationship between the U.S. and Hawai‘i, as Hawai‘i became a U.S. Territory in 1898, thereby allowing for more radical anti-German ideology to permeate the Hawaiian Islands. As we commemorate the centennial anniversary of the start of the War, this research aims to draw awareness to one of the lesser discussed issues of that time period: the history of the marginalization of Germans living in Hawai‘i.
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    Henry George’s Contribution to Socialism in America, 1870-1900
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Ko, Emily ; Hoffenberg, Peter H. ; History
    The Gilded Age was a period of industrial development in the United States from approximately 1870 to 1900. In many ways, it helped to usher in the modern world. With the large growth in business, there also arose a displacement among workers who were migrating from farms to cities and adapting to new methods of management and business. This dissatisfaction led to the creation of labor unions and the spread of socialism in America. Henry George (1839 to 1897), a political and social leader of this period, was inspired to write his manifesto, Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions, and of Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth: The Remedy, by the social conditions he witnessed. Many socialist thinkers during the Gilded Age and since read George’s work and were struck by its socialist leanings. In their writings, most of them conceded that George contributed to bringing socialist ideas to the public with his bestseller. However, some thinkers took issue with his single land tax principle that they judged to be overrated or not radical enough. George has been largely overlooked in the history of the Gilded Age, but during George’s life, Progress and Poverty reached the minds of reformers, politicians, writers, lecturers, and social leaders.
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    Masters of La Mode: Representations of Women in the French Fashion Press, 1785-99
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-05) Kam, Miranda ; Lauzon, Matthew ; History
    This project examines representations of women in the French fashion press from its beginning in 1785 to Napoleon’s coup d’état in 1799. During the French Revolution, certain women wore ‘masculine’ Revolutionary symbols to facilitate their participation in revolutionary processes. Many saw the actions of these women as threats to masculine citizenship and in 1793, the increased controversy surrounding dress forced the National Convention to declare freedom of dress for all citizens and citizenesses. Some historians have contended that Revolutionary legislators granted women freedom in fashion largely as a substitute for genuine political power in the emerging public sphere. This project argues that although revolutionary processes may have granted women freedom of fashion, the male-dominated fashion press attempted to undermine women’s authority and assert men’s control in an area in which it claimed women possessed legitimate power. Through the close analysis of 18th -century fashion periodicals, this project determines that while fashion periodicals claimed to venerate women and their talents in the realm of fashion, they employed concepts like the relationship between dress and behaviors to dictate women’s dress. Although the fashion press initially celebrated women as the creators and masters of fashion, the fashion press editors later used their professed adoration of women to persuade them to surrender their freedom of dress. By regulating women’s consumptive and sartorial habits, the fashion press helped to alleviate contemporaries’ concerns about women’s participation in the public sphere.
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    “If It Were My Way, All This Ought to Be Red”: George Thomas and the Frontier of the British Empire 1781-1802
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-12) Miller, Devon ; Daniel, Marcus ; History
    In 1805, a printer in England published a tale of imperialism, conquest and tragic loss from a memoir from Calcutta, India. Sponsored by key figures of the British Indian Administration, the Military Memoirs of Mr. George Thomas tells the story of a poor Irish Catholic boy who, in the midst of the war torn Maratha Empire, India in the 19th Century, carved out his own kingdom on the edge of the Punjabi. Succeeding in the chaotic maelstrom of violence, constantly shifting loyalties and political intrigue, his tale would be considered to be of ‘great interest’ to the British public by contemporaries. This project explores George Thomas’ story, analyzing who this man was, where he fits within his world, and why his story was told through the use of narratives, letters, and governmental debates. While it is clear the author of the memoir wished to portray Thomas as a quintessential British patriot and soldier, it is equally clear that this portrayal of the man was not the reality. Adopting the pretensions of Nationalistic loyalty out of sheer pragmatism, Thomas was a proud, competent and ambitious man who, over the course of his life propagated three imperiums: Mahratta, British, and his own. This project helps us to understand the political reality of the Maratha Empire during 1780-1802 and a 19th Century Catholic Irishman’s understanding of loyalty, honor, self-identity, and his place within his world, allowing us in turn to reflect upon ours.
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    Old Wine, New Skins: Models of Roman Leadership in the Court of Charlemagne
    (University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015-12) Brewbaker, Katarina A. ; Jolly, Karen Louise ; History
    Modern western society looks back on the Roman Empire as a model for politics, economics, and social relations. The use of the Roman Empire as a foundation for political organization began in the Early Middle Ages with the development of the idea of Christian kingship following the conversion to Christianity of Emperor Constantine (c.747-814). However, early medieval Francia adapted Roman principles selectively, and not primarily on the model of Constantine. During his rule of the Frankish Empire, Charlemagne (c.747-814) and his court consciously chose and incorporated elements from the first Emperor Augustus, as well as borrowed and reused Roman architecture. A comparison of ancient and Frankish historical, biographical, literary, and chronicle sources reveals how Frankish courtiers amended these Roman imperial ideas to establish Charlemagne’s Christian rulership, in part through an educational reform program and the establishment of royal court at Aächen modeled on Ravenna. Set against the backdrop of an emerging Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, Charlemagne’s court helped establish the legacy of Christian kingship usually attributed to Constantine.