Horizons, Volume 1

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    Front and Back Cover
    ( 2016-10-21)
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    Editor's Foreword
    ( 2016-10-21) Beaule, Christine
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    To Come Out is to Uphold and Liberate: The Hegemony and Queerness of Christian Closets
    ( 2016-10-21) Omuro, Jon H.
    In dominant LGBTQ+ U.S. discourse, the term “closet” refers to a space from which a covert sexual identification and/or orientation emerges. Yet, this definition becomes increasingly complicated when set in the context of evangelical Christianity. Indeed, within the U.S., dominant evangelical discourse is primarily viewed as antagonistic to LGBTQ+ peoples, due to its homophobic stances and denials of LGBTQ+ identities and rights. This opposition raises a key question: what do closet constructions situated at the intersection of gay/Christian identity look like? In this article, I explore and queer several Christian closets as structured by both gay and straight Christian writers. For these writers, faith and gayness play different roles of hiding, reinforcing, and liberating gay and Christian identities within and out of Christian closets. By scrutinizing these Christian closets within a queer framework provided by Eve Sedgwick and Judith Butler, I argue that these closets can be—often simultaneously—representative of the hegemonic demands of evangelical Christianity while espousing queer reimaginings of survival within this demanding ideology itself. Ultimately, I propose that Christian closets provide a unique venue through which overlaps, dissonances, and similarities between LGBTQ+/Christian ideologies and discourses can be affirmed, blurred, and queered. Such work is vital in the context of the present U.S., where these two ostensibly antithetical ideologies are continually thrown in the spotlight—both in expected quarrels or unusual displays of collaboration.
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    Fjords and Firearms: Military Spending, Economic Growth, and Technological Innovation in Post war Norway
    ( 2016-10-21) Litzelman, Eli
    Both economists and policy makers disagree on the effects of significant military spending on the economy during peacetime. By looking at Norway, a small but advanced nation with a complex economy and a mixed history of military spending, a case study can be made on the positive and negative influences of military spending. In order to understand this connection, two key national indicators should be analyzed in Norway during the Cold War: military spending and economic growth, as represented by the change in both real gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita over time, while paying particular attention to research and development (R&D). The Norwegian military establishment took a significant turn after the Second World War as military spending increased dramatically and Norway began receiving significant investments by Western nations, specifically the United States. As Norway reached the end of the twentieth century, however, relative military spending began to decrease and the military’s role in technology and innovation shifted to the civilian sector. Arguably, one of the most significant contributions of the Norwegian military sector in the twentieth century has been the slow conversion of military R&D to civilian R&D within the public sector; this conversion has provided firms with a constant flow of human resources and enabled the success of Norway’s technology-driven industries.
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    Conceptual Design of Kewalo Basin and Kupu Hawai‘i’s Youth Facility
    ( 2016-10-21) Jugueta, Kristoffer
    Situated along the coastline of the urban development of Kaka’ako, Kewalo Basin is destined to become an attractive urban space for community interaction. While more housing is currently under development, the need for community and public space is needed. Operating the site is a nonprofit organization that gives opportunities to under resourced youth, preparing them for the future. In this final project, the student was challenged to design an urban landscape that faces the problems of climate change and future sea level rise. The design process involved site visits with clients and architects, conducting site analysis and extensive research. With the data collected, schematic phases of design was operated through a series of sketches and study models. Within a two-month timeline, the student was able to design an architectural vision with the assistance of local architect firms, Group 70 and PBR Hawai`i. The project resulted in an urban space fit for multi-generational uses where people can interact together. The site was strategically designed to take advantage of Hawai`i’s natural resources while also emphasizing on concepts shared from Hawaiian culture. A two-story facility was also designed to provide room for a variety of public spaces and private classrooms, giving Hawai`i’s youth a future to live by.
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    ( 2016-10-21) Galarita, Brandon
    My short story provides glimpses into a family that is tarnished by the influence of ice, or crystal methamphetamine. I employ the modular style—a form that breaks expectations of time and place as seen in a linear narrative—to reduce the work to its essential moments, allowing both what is said and unsaid to be amplified. I created this work with the intention of highlighting the issue of meth use across the state of Hawaiʻi, which brings danger to families, tears them apart, and impacts the fragile minds of children. I embrace the use of Pidgin—Hawaiian Creole English—as a staple of my work to plant a reader, including those who may be unfamiliar with this language, in the culture I have been raised in. I have seen the effects of this drug firsthand and in creating this piece I wanted to reveal one aspect of an issue that is not simply black-and-white.
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    Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-Derived Radioactive Isotopes in Mushrooms in the Hawaiian Islands
    ( 2016-10-21) McKenzie, Trista
    In March of 2011, the radioisotopes cesium-134 and cesium-137 were released into the atmosphere from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of these isotopes on Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation in mushroom samples. This study found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in mushrooms collected in the Hawaiian islands and that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in mushrooms were somewhat correlated with precipitation gradients. The activities detected were several orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.
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    5 Centimeters per Second: A Close Analysis of Two Forms of Media
    ( 2016-10-21) Miwa, Chanelle
    Makoto Shinkai’s 5 Centimeters Per Second is a manga (comic) and anime (animation) that takes place in Japan during the 1990s up until 2008. The manga version of this story was serialized in Afternoon, a manga magazine targeted to adult men. Tono Takaki and the new transfer student, Shinohara Akari quickly become good friends because of their similar interests and personalities. However, upon their elementary graduation Akari moves due to her parents’ jobs. The story takes place during a time when cell phones were uncommon and email was not utilized. Shinkai portrays several realistic themes of the struggles some people face such as space, time, and love. Both the anime and manga are broken down into three connected stories; “Cherry Blossom,” “Cosmonaut,” and “5 Centimeters Per Second.” However, the anime and manga are different in the way that the story is structured as well as the visual representations of certain scenes. Visual representation of the same story has different effects in the two different medias; anime and manga. Through both mediums there are different messages that are relayed through the way that the story is presented. The anime presentation of 5 Centimeters Per Second implies an unhappy outcome for the story whereas the manga version implies more optimism. The different representational choices in both mediums create very different receptions of the same story.
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    Autism-Spectrum Disorder: Testing Perceptions of Reality through the Monty Hall Problem
    ( 2016-10-21) Auelua-Toomey, Sakaria
    Visual perception of reality has evolved for fitness and not for perceiving an accurate reality, indicating that typical humans perceive an inaccurate perception of reality. Previous research indicates that other information processing systems may also interact with reality the same way: using heuristics. Heuristics are mental-shortcuts that are used to facilitate cognitively effortless interaction with the environment, but they often affect accuracy. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have demonstrated to be less susceptible to certain heuristics. The lack of heuristic use may attribute to perceiving an objective reality. The Monty Hall problem (MHP) is a probability reasoning question that elicits heuristics that typically leads to incorrect conclusions in the MHP. The objective of this study is to measure the heuristic use between ASD and non-ASD individuals using the MHP. Results indicate that ASD participants were significantly more likely to solve the MHP correctly and understand the reasoning behind the MHP than non-ASD participants. Results could indicate a need to revisit leading ASD theories and theories of perception. Implications of the results could also be used to help diagnose individuals with ASD at an early age. Future research should use imaging techniques to determine brain structures responsible for heuristic use.
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    Music-Induced Emotions and the Inexplicability Thereof
    ( 2016-10-21) Di Martino, Michael
    Music affects the emotions and outlooks of its listeners. Sad music can induce despondence, indifference, and depression, whereas lively music can encourage jubilance, excitement, and happiness. Music changes how listeners interpret their environment, from the people around them the thoughts inside their heads. However, the mechanism by which this works is shrouded in mystery. Music’s psychological, mechanical, and physiological influences are such a complicated, intertwined mess that if you asked someone to explain why you get the feelings you get when you listen to your favorite song, odds are they’ll respond with “I can’t explain it.” This slam poem, originally entitled “I Can’t Explain It,” seeks to capture and illustrate the inexplicable effect that different types of music have on one’s emotions, as well as one’s self- and local perception. This piece follows variations in the thoughts of a student sitting at the Campus Center of the University of Hawai’i at Manoa – one of the central hubs for student and faculty activity – as he peruses his iPod touch, scrolling and searching to find the perfect song at the perfect volume and, once it is found, basking in the wave of emotions it brings about.