Digital Workforce and Crowd Work

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    How to Empower the Workforce - Analyzing Internal Crowd Work as a Neo-Socio-Technical System -
    ( 2019-01-08) Durward, David ; Simmert, Benedikt ; Peters, Christoph ; Blohm, Ivo ; Leimeister, Jan Marco
    In this paper, we analyze internal crowd work as Neo-STS from an employee’s perspective. Based on qualitative interviews, we describe in our model how employees perceive empowerment through participation in internal crowd work. As our main contribution, we detail and extend existing research regarding internal crowd work, Neo-STS as well as empowerment by identifying structural antecedents that affect psychological empowerment of internal crowd workers.
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    Spatial and Socioeconomic Analysis of Host Participation in the Shared Accommodation Economy – Airbnb in New York City
    ( 2019-01-08) Sarkar, Avijit ; Koohikamali, Mehrdad ; Pick, James
    Limited academic research has examined factors that motivate hosts in short-term homesharing platforms to participate in the shared accommodation workforce. To fill this gap, this paper examines socioeconomic antecedents, motivations, and spatial patterns of Airbnb host participation in New York City’s (NYC) shared accommodation marketplace. A conceptual model posits associations of demographic, socioeconomic, social capital, trust and greener consumption independent variables with host participation. The model is empirically validated for a large sample of NYC neighborhoods using OLS regressions. Regression findings indicate that host participation is associated with demographic variables – gender, age, and ethnic minorities; economic variables – median household income, households with a mortgage, and professional/scientific/technical services occupation; as well as attitude towards greener consumption. Descriptive mapping and cluster analysis reveal interesting spatial patterns of Airbnb property densities while the absence of associations of social capital and trust with host participation has interesting implications to understand motivations of the shared accommodation workforce.
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    Predictors of Early-Career Self-Employment among Millennials in the Digital Economy: The Role of The Great Recession
    ( 2019-01-08) Figueroa-Armijos, Maria ; da Motta Veiga, Serge
    In today’s digital economy, millennials seek flexibility and task significance, making self-employment an attractive career option. Although millennials are growing to become the largest generation in the United States workforce, evidence is scant regarding what drives their self-employment decisions. This study explores predictors of self-employment among early millennials (i.e. those born between 1980 and 1984) in the years before, during, and after The Great Recession. Using a national U.S. database (NLSY97), we find that millennials who were satisfied with their early-career jobs were more likely to become self-employed before the recession, and also after the recession. During the recession, however, our indicator of job satisfaction is non-significant, although the coefficient indicates an inverse relationship. Our results also suggest that higher autonomy (less parental monitoring) during adolescence is positively related to millennials’ self-employment decision in their early-career stage, especially among women and those who grew up in an urban area.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Digital Workforce and Crowd Work
    ( 2019-01-08) Deng, Xuefei (Nancy) ; Moussawi, Sara ; Taylor, Joseph