The Effects of Social and Spatial Presence on Engagement in a 3D Virtual Reality Environment: An Empirical Investigation

Pengnate, Supavich
Riggins, Fred
Zhang, Limin
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Virtual reality (VR) provides opportunities for businesses to innovatively engage customers. Based on presence theory, a research model was developed to test the influence of two major components of presence, social presence and spatial presence, on users’ perceptions of hedonic value, utilitarian value, and engagement. An experiment was conducted on two conditions of a VR application (low vs. high social presence) to test the hypotheses in the research model. The results reveal that social presence and spatial presence can improve hedonic value of VR. However, inconsistent with previous studies, our findings reveal a negative relationship between spatial presence and engagement. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions are subsequently discussed.
Internet of Things: Providing Services Using Smart Devices, Wearables, and Quantified Self, Decision Analytics, Mobile Services, and Service Science, Social Presence, Spatial Presence, User Engagement, Virtual Reality
Access Rights
Email if you need this content in ADA-compliant format.