Examining the Relationship Between Protein Intake and Source and Acanthosis Nigricans Among Young Children in the Children's Healthy Living Program in the United States Affiliated Pacific

Calabrese, Allison
Revilla, Marie K.
Nutritional Sciences
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BACKGROUND: Acanthosis Nigricans (acanthosis) is a dermatological condition that is characterized by a symmetrical, velvety, light brown to black pigmentation of the skin. Acanthosis has been reported to be linked to obesity and is a physical marker on the skin for insulin resistance. Previous research has focused on the relationship of high carbohydrate and fat diets with insulin resistance. However, there are no studies to date analyzing the relationship between protein intake and food sources to acanthosis in children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine if the presence of acanthosis is related to dietary protein consumption and protein source among children in the United States Affiliated Pacific. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted on data collected from 3468, 2 to 8-year-old children in 11 jurisdictions from the Children’s Healthy Living Program. One way ANOVA was conducted to determine the relationship between acanthosis and total energy intake (kcal), mean protein (g), fat (g) and dairy (servings) intake of the two days weighted for weekday/weekend, mean meat (oz) intake and lean meat equivalents from egg (oz), poultry (oz), franks and luncheon meats (oz), fish and seafood (oz), beef, pork and lamb (oz), nuts and seeds (oz), soy (oz), and dry beans and peas (oz) weighted for weekday/weekend days and adjusted for within person variance, and age (yrs). Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the protein sources and whether children consuming protein intake within the age appropriate US Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes were less likely to screen positive for acanthosis. All models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight/obesity, energy intake (kcal) and mean total fat intake (oz). RESULTS: There were 191 (5.5%) children that screened positively for acanthosis. The prevalence of acanthosis was higher in overweight and obese children than in healthy weight children (63.4% vs 35.6%). The total intake for protein was not significantly associated with acanthosis. However, for every 1 oz increase in intake of meat per day, the risk of acanthosis significantly increased by 16% (p= 0.009). Lean meat from meat, poultry, and fish (oz) was significantly associated with acanthosis (p= 0.000). Poultry and meat intake were no longer significantly associated with acanthosis in logistic regression models after controlling for confounding variables. However, for every 1 oz increase in fish and seafood intake the risk of acanthosis significantly increased by 22% (p=0.001). Mean total dairy intake had a protective effect against the risk of acanthosis, where for every ½ serving increase in dairy, the risk decreased by 40% (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in acanthosis risk between children who consumed protein within the age appropriate Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes as compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: Total protein intake did not affect the likelihood of screening positive for acanthosis in young children from the United States Affiliated Pacific. However, meat intake, specifically from fish and seafood did increase the risk for having acanthosis while dairy consumption was shown to have a protective effect. Further study analyzing the different nutrient components of protein sources such as fish, seafood, and dairy sources are warranted.
Nutrition, acanthosis, protein, protein source
58 pages
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