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Examining Reading Growth Profiles Among Children of Diverse Language Backgrounds Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (1999-2008): Multiple-Group Latent Curve and Growth Mixture Analyses.

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Title:Examining Reading Growth Profiles Among Children of Diverse Language Backgrounds Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (1999-2008): Multiple-Group Latent Curve and Growth Mixture Analyses.
Authors:Reid, Tingting
Contributors:Educational Psychology (department)
Date Issued:Aug 2018
Publisher:University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Abstract:Previous research examining the reading achievement of immigrant children has often grouped English learners into one broad category, referred to as ELs, thereby creating an “either-or” dichotomy regarding whether or not these students need school language supports. The present study examined the theoretical contention regarding the “heterogeneity” existing among language minority children’s reading achievement growth spanning from kindergarten through grade eight utilizing a nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten, 1999-2008. The goal of the study was threefold: (1) to identify the model of best utility in describing the longitudinal reading growth trends across children with diverse linguistic backgrounds [i.e., English Monolinguals, English Bilinguals, Mixed Bilinguals, and LEP (Limited English Proficient)]; (2) to examine the mechanisms underlying language minority students’ reading development vis-à-vis their English monolingual counterparts with respect to family socioeconomic status, home literacy practices, classroom literacy instruction and ESL programs; and (3) to investigate the indirect role of school contexts and processes on student reading growth through mediating latent reading profile groups using growth mixture modeling (GMM). The research sought to advance the study of language minority students’ reading growth in at least two ways: first, it further unpacked language minority status by providing a closer examination of children’s home language use by utilizing a “known groups” analytic approach—multiple-group latent curve analysis—to identify the different reading growth profiles due to language background; second, it then cross-validated these findings using an “emergent groups” approach—GMM.
Several results were noteworthy. First, convergent with prior research, language minority students shared qualitatively similar reading growth trajectories with their English monolingual counterparts comprising three distinct growth periods. LEP students, however, considerably lagged behind the other language background groups during each growth period. Second, the family SES-home literacy practices mechanism was most salient during kindergarten, and particularly for children with predominant English backgrounds, a finding divergent from prior research noting its salience across all demographics. Third, literacy instruction focused on phonics were found to benefit students with lower initial reading abilities (LEPs); however, no such benefits were discerned for bilingual students. Fourth, effects of ESL/bilingual programs (i.e., time allocated, in-class and pullout programs, and classroom aides) were mixed across the language background groups. Finally, the GMM analyses identified three latent reading profile groups, with EL students overrepresented in the low-achieving profile group. Students in this group were characterized as attending schools with lower reported involvement in school academic improvement processes, higher proportions of LEP students, and limited resources available for EL students. Limitations and concluding thoughts for future research are also discussed.
Description:Ph.D. Thesis. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa 2018.
Rights:All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
Appears in Collections: Ph.D. - Educational Psychology

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