Volume 41 - December 2009 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Application Methods for Paste Bait Formulations in Control of Ants in Arboreal Situations
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Vanderwoude, C. ; Nadeau, B.
    Control of invasive ant species has predominantly been through the use of granular baits. These baits are not suitable for ant species that nest in trees and vegetation such as Wasmannia auropunctata, recently introduced to the Big Island and Kauai, Hawaii. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of gel and paste baits for control of some invasive ant species. However, application of these bait types is difficult and time consuming. Here we describe new application methods for gel and paste baits in arboreal situations.
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    Ectoparasitic Arthropods Occurring on Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus Collected from Two Properties on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii (Acarina, Siphonaptera, and Anoplura)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Yang, Pingjun ; Oshiro, Sandra ; Warashina, Wesley
    A survey of ectoparasites occurring on rats was carried out from August 2006 through February 2007 on two properties on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. From the property in Liliha, a total of 167 Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, were examined. Two species of fleas and four species of mites were collected: oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, domestic rat mite, Laelaps nuttalli, spiny rat mite, Laelaps echidninus, and house mouse mite, Allodermanyssus sanguineus. From the property in Aiea, a total of 80 black rats, Rattus rattus, were examined. One species of flea, one species of louse, and two species of mites were collected: cat flea, C. felis, sucking louse, Polyplax spinulosa, tropical rat mite, O. bacoti, and house mouse mite, A. sanguineus. This is the first record of the house mouse mite, A. sanguineus, from Hawaii. Ornithonyssus bacoti and A. sanguineus were the predominant species of mites that infested both rodent species. The occurrence of other ectoparasites on the rats caught from the two sites may be affected by different rodent host and other environmental factors.
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    Capture of Males of the Light Brown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in Pheromone-Baited Delta Traps of Differing Size and Design
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Shelly, Todd E.
    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a polyphagous pest first reported in California in 2006. State and federal agencies responded by initiating a large-scale trapping program to monitor its spread and population dynamics. The purpose of this study was to compare the trap catch between two delta traps differing in size and design. Both trap types were baited with female pheromone and trapped E. postvittana males on a sticky base. This insert was 121 cm2 in the smaller Jackson traps compared to 360 cm2 in the larger Scentry LP traps. In addition, the ends of the trap floor were folded upward (forming barriers) in the Scentry LP traps, whereas Jackson traps lacked such barriers. Working in San Francisco, I established 13 pairs of traps (one Jackson and one Scentry LP trap) and serviced them weekly during two separate 6-week intervals (June-August and September-October, 2008, respectively). Data for the Scentry LP traps showed that significantly more males were caught in September-October than in June-August, whereas captures in the Jackson traps were not significantly different between the early and late sampling periods. Correspondingly, numbers of males captured per trap per day were not statistically different between the two trap types in the early period but were significantly higher for the Scentry LP traps than the Jackson traps in the later period. Implications of these results for the ongoing detection and survey program are discussed.
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    Exposure to Grapefruits and Grapefruit Oil Increases Male Mating Success in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Shelly, Todd E.
    Exposure to certain plants or plant compounds may influence the mating success of male fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Earlier research demonstrated that males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), exposed to ginger root oil (Zingiber officiale Roscoe), bark of the common guava (Psidium guajava L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) or orange oil obtain significantly more matings than non-exposed (control) males. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether male exposure to another Citrus species, the grapefruit C. paradisi Macfad., also resulted in increased mating competitiveness of male medflies. Consistent with the data from oranges, males exposed to grapefruits or grapefruit oil had a mating advantage over non-exposed (control) males. In addition, as reported for orange oil, males exposed to grapefruit oil displayed an elevated level of sexual signaling (pheromone-calling), which presumably contributed to their increased mating frequency. The finding that grapefruit, a second Citrus species, produced similar effects as oranges suggests that citrus fruits, in general, may enhance the mating performance of male medflies.
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    Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait Spray against Different Ages of Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Females When Applied to Border Crops of Various Widths
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Vargas, Roger I. ; Pinero, Jaime C. ; Jacome, Isabel ; Revis, Hannah C. ; Prokopy, Ronald J.
    GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated for its effectiveness to prevent melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), females of various ages from ovipositing in cucumber patches with border crops of different widths. Cohorts of color-marked, protein-fed females, eclosed after 1, 2, or 4 weeks, were released from sites outside sorghum, (Sudax bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) borders 1, 2, or 4 rows deep (30, 90, and 135 cm in width, respectively). Capture rates of female B. cucurbitae were higher for 2- and 4-week-old than for 1-week-old females. Borders sprayed with GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait were effective at preventing released sexually- mature 4-wk-old females from reaching the cucumber patches only when in association with the widest border (135 cm) treatment. Our findings suggest that for maximum effectiveness against host-seeking female B. cucurbitae, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait should be applied to broader swaths of sorghum planted as a border crop.