Volume 41 - December 2009 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Item
    Application Methods for Paste Bait Formulations in Control of Ants in Arboreal Situations
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Vanderwoude, C. ; Nadeau, B.
    Control of invasive ant species has predominantly been through the use of granular baits. These baits are not suitable for ant species that nest in trees and vegetation such as Wasmannia auropunctata, recently introduced to the Big Island and Kauai, Hawaii. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of gel and paste baits for control of some invasive ant species. However, application of these bait types is difficult and time consuming. Here we describe new application methods for gel and paste baits in arboreal situations.
  • Item
    Ectoparasitic Arthropods Occurring on Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus Collected from Two Properties on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii (Acarina, Siphonaptera, and Anoplura)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Yang, Pingjun ; Oshiro, Sandra ; Warashina, Wesley
    A survey of ectoparasites occurring on rats was carried out from August 2006 through February 2007 on two properties on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. From the property in Liliha, a total of 167 Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, were examined. Two species of fleas and four species of mites were collected: oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, domestic rat mite, Laelaps nuttalli, spiny rat mite, Laelaps echidninus, and house mouse mite, Allodermanyssus sanguineus. From the property in Aiea, a total of 80 black rats, Rattus rattus, were examined. One species of flea, one species of louse, and two species of mites were collected: cat flea, C. felis, sucking louse, Polyplax spinulosa, tropical rat mite, O. bacoti, and house mouse mite, A. sanguineus. This is the first record of the house mouse mite, A. sanguineus, from Hawaii. Ornithonyssus bacoti and A. sanguineus were the predominant species of mites that infested both rodent species. The occurrence of other ectoparasites on the rats caught from the two sites may be affected by different rodent host and other environmental factors.
  • Item
    Capture of Males of the Light Brown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), in Pheromone-Baited Delta Traps of Differing Size and Design
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Shelly, Todd E.
    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a polyphagous pest first reported in California in 2006. State and federal agencies responded by initiating a large-scale trapping program to monitor its spread and population dynamics. The purpose of this study was to compare the trap catch between two delta traps differing in size and design. Both trap types were baited with female pheromone and trapped E. postvittana males on a sticky base. This insert was 121 cm2 in the smaller Jackson traps compared to 360 cm2 in the larger Scentry LP traps. In addition, the ends of the trap floor were folded upward (forming barriers) in the Scentry LP traps, whereas Jackson traps lacked such barriers. Working in San Francisco, I established 13 pairs of traps (one Jackson and one Scentry LP trap) and serviced them weekly during two separate 6-week intervals (June-August and September-October, 2008, respectively). Data for the Scentry LP traps showed that significantly more males were caught in September-October than in June-August, whereas captures in the Jackson traps were not significantly different between the early and late sampling periods. Correspondingly, numbers of males captured per trap per day were not statistically different between the two trap types in the early period but were significantly higher for the Scentry LP traps than the Jackson traps in the later period. Implications of these results for the ongoing detection and survey program are discussed.
  • Item
    Exposure to Grapefruits and Grapefruit Oil Increases Male Mating Success in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Shelly, Todd E.
    Exposure to certain plants or plant compounds may influence the mating success of male fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Earlier research demonstrated that males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), exposed to ginger root oil (Zingiber officiale Roscoe), bark of the common guava (Psidium guajava L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) or orange oil obtain significantly more matings than non-exposed (control) males. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether male exposure to another Citrus species, the grapefruit C. paradisi Macfad., also resulted in increased mating competitiveness of male medflies. Consistent with the data from oranges, males exposed to grapefruits or grapefruit oil had a mating advantage over non-exposed (control) males. In addition, as reported for orange oil, males exposed to grapefruit oil displayed an elevated level of sexual signaling (pheromone-calling), which presumably contributed to their increased mating frequency. The finding that grapefruit, a second Citrus species, produced similar effects as oranges suggests that citrus fruits, in general, may enhance the mating performance of male medflies.
  • Item
    Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait Spray against Different Ages of Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Females When Applied to Border Crops of Various Widths
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Vargas, Roger I. ; Pinero, Jaime C. ; Jacome, Isabel ; Revis, Hannah C. ; Prokopy, Ronald J.
    GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated for its effectiveness to prevent melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), females of various ages from ovipositing in cucumber patches with border crops of different widths. Cohorts of color-marked, protein-fed females, eclosed after 1, 2, or 4 weeks, were released from sites outside sorghum, (Sudax bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) borders 1, 2, or 4 rows deep (30, 90, and 135 cm in width, respectively). Capture rates of female B. cucurbitae were higher for 2- and 4-week-old than for 1-week-old females. Borders sprayed with GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait were effective at preventing released sexually- mature 4-wk-old females from reaching the cucumber patches only when in association with the widest border (135 cm) treatment. Our findings suggest that for maximum effectiveness against host-seeking female B. cucurbitae, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait should be applied to broader swaths of sorghum planted as a border crop.
  • Item
    Susceptibility of Ripe Avocado to Invasive Alien Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) on the Island of Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Klungness, L.M. ; Vargas, R.I. ; Jang, E.B. ; Mau, R.F.L. ; Kinney, K.
    The Avocado Growers Association on the island of Hawaii requested that the USDA-APHIS reconsider the possibility of approving the export of untreated avocado to the continental USA. In response, as part of the Hawaii Area Wide Pest Management Program, the Agricultural Research Service undertook a survey to supplement the original survey conducted by Liquido et al. (1995). This consisted of deploying traps baited with male lures for the three invasive species (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann)) and protein bait traps for general detection of females within orchards. The survey was concentrated in the Kona District, and the orchards were mapped using a geographic information systems approach. In addition, between 9 August 2006 until 22 May 2007, 519 avocado fruits were collected from the ground and held individually to determine the presence of fruit fly larvae. Because male lure trap captures varied with locality and season and attracted flies from large distances, they are probably of limited value in predicting numbers of fruit flies within small avocado orchards. On the other hand protein bait traps, because they captured females and attracted flies from short distances, were a better indication of female flies found within orchards. C. capitata was the most prevalent species year round (0.456 ± 0.130 ♀ flies/trap/day). B. dorsalis was captured considerably less frequently (0.096 ± 0.068 ♀ flies/trap/day). B. cucurbitae was the least prevalent species in avocado orchards, averaging 0.034 ± 0.006 ♀ flies/trap/day. Adult fly emergence from the ground fruit sample was 1.25 x 10–05 ± 8.89 x 10–6 B. dorsalis flies/g of fruit and no C. capitata emerged from any fruit sample. That is a fruit infestation rate of 0.385% and a rate of 0.771% larvae per fruit. All of the fruits sampled had some damage that would have excluded them from shipment by previous export criteria.
  • Item
    New Record for Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae), a Hymenopteran Parasitoid of Syrphid Flies in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Cappadonna, Justin ; Euaparadorn, Melody ; Peck, Robert W. ; Banko, Paul C.
    The parasitoid wasp Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) attacks the larvae of syrphid flies (Syrphidae). Woldstedtius flavolineatus was collected in Hawaii for the first time during an extensive malaise trap-based survey of parasitoids in Hawaiian forests. Since its initial collection on Hawaii Island in January 2006, it has been collected at five additional sites on Hawaii Island and at one site each on Maui and Oahu. Malaise trap results from Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge showed a strong seasonal pattern of abundance, with peak population levels reached during July–September. Rearing of its host, Allograpta obliqua (Say), collected from koa (Acacia koa Gray) at Hakalau over two days, revealed a parasitism rate of approximately 95%. Broader impacts of this alien wasp are unknown, but a reduction in host syrphid abundance could result in an increase in numbers of psyllids and aphids (Homoptera) that are preyed upon by syrphid larvae. Furthermore, a reduction in adult syrphids could impact the reproductive success of some of the plants they pollinate.
  • Item
    First Recorded Hawaiian Occurrence of the Alien Ground Beetle, Agonum muelleri (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from the Summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii Island
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Liebherr, J.K. ; Montgomery, S.L. ; Englund, R.A. ; Samuelson, G.A.
    Adults of the non-native species, Agonum muelleri (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from the summit of Mauna Kea in 2006 and again during 2008, indicating that a population of this European species is established on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii island (NEW STATE RECORD). Agonum muelleri is a synanthropic species that has been accidentally introduced from Europe to both the east and west coasts of North America, with the known North American distribution including 24 provinces and states of Canada and the United States. Characters for the adults are provided to permit diagnosis of this non-native species from all other native and introduced carabid beetle species known from Hawaii. Recorded environmental conditions from Mauna Kea summit taken during the months when specimens were collected are consistent with conditions associated with winged flight by A. muelleri individuals in the species’ native European range.
  • Item
    The Invasive Ant Fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) McClelland, G.T.W. ; Jones, I.L.
    Ants are not native to any of the Hawaiian Islands and invasive ant impacts on Hawaiian ecosystems have been profound, so documentation of ant diversity is crucial to understanding and managing these alien species. Changes to the invasive ant fauna on Laysan Island, Northwest Hawaiian Islands, were documented in 2005, fifteen years after the previous (1990) survey of the island. Six species were found on the island, all previously recorded. The common tramp ant Monomorium pharaonis was found to have greatly expanded its range to become the dominant ant on Laysan. During the same period, the range of the previously dominant ant species, Tetramorium bicarinatum, greatly decreased and the species was limited to the dense vegetation areas around the island’s central lake. Tetramorium simillimum, possibly the most recent introduction to the island, and previously the second most widespread species, was not located in surveys and is possibly extirpated. An invasive ant species has apparently not become established on Laysan in almost 20 years suggesting current quarantine measures are a successful deterrent to colonization events.
  • Item
    Occurrence and Distribution of Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) of Public Health Importance on the Island of Oahu
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2009-12-01) Leong, Mark K.H. ; Grace, J Kenneth
    The Vector Control Branch of the Hawaii State Department of Health has accumulated a large volume of written inspection data on pests of public health for the island of Oahu. Flea related complaints provided the third greatest amount of arthropod pest information available, following mosquitoes and other fly complaints. The objectives of this study were to conduct a survey of the occurrence of flea complaints on Oahu over a 10-year period, determine their distribution over time, graphically compare flea occurrence within and between district/areas, and correlate flea occurrence and distribution with season. Flea data were drawn from inspection reports from 1990 to 1999, population information was obtained from Hawaii Census and State of Hawaii Data Books, 125 district/area geographic locations were defined, and flea occurrence and distribution were adjusted for population and mapped using ArcView GIS 3.2. Most flea activity was reported within the central, south, east and west urban districts. The drier, low lying and leeward areas of the island had the highest number of complaints. The levels of flea activity were highest during the spring, summer and fall. The primary flea species recorded was Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche), the cat flea. The main sources of flea infestations were improperly cared for pet cats and dogs, feral cats and dogs, and pets dying or being removed from premises. Flea populations are being maintained in urban and agricultural districts by human activities. As a result, disease transmission is possible, especially in the lower elevation, leeward areas of Oahu. These results indicate that educational programs should be carried out in late winter, and that residential flea surveys may be concentrated in a limited number of district/areas.