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Title: The Ecology, Policy, and Management of Ants in Hawaii 
Author: Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Reimer, Neil J.
Date: 2005-11
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Krushelnycky PD, Loope LL, Reimer NJ. 2005. The ecology, policy, and management of ants in Hawaii. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 37:1–25.
Abstract: Ants represent a wholly introduced component of Hawaiian ecosystems. The establishment of roughly 45 ant species over the past two centuries has wide ranging implications for agriculture, other sectors of the economy, and the conservation of native biodiversity. Although ants have received considerable attention in Hawaii, many questions regarding the factors that determine their distributions and influence patterns of species co-occurrence remain largely unexplored. More focus has been directed at their ecological effects, both in agriculture, where they tend pestiferous homopteran insects, and in natural areas, where they can directly threaten native invertebrates and vertebrates and indirectly impact native plants. Increased awareness of the negative repercussions of ant introductions in Hawaii has led to improvements in preventative quarantine policy in the last decade, however agencies responsible for ant and other invasive species interdiction remain severely understaffed. Efforts to control or eradicate ant infestations for conservation purposes in Hawaii represent a recent development, and have so far met with variable success. Such efforts may also require a greater investment to improve results. The threat of other destructive ant species, such as the red imported fire ant, arriving in Hawaii underscores the importance of an early detection network and an established infrastructure ready for rapid response.
Description: Invited review
ISSN: 0073-134X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/103
Keywords: Formicidae, Hawaii, introduced species, invasive species, insect ecology, issues and policy, insect control, quarantine, pest management, natural resource management, biodiversity, literature reviews, ant control, biogeography, ecological invasion

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