Volume 37 - November 2005 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    The Ecology, Policy, and Management of Ants in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Krushelnycky, Paul D. ; Loope, Lloyd L. ; Reimer, Neil J.
    Ants represent a wholly introduced component of Hawaiian ecosystems. The establishment of roughly 45 ant species over the past two centuries has wide ranging implications for agriculture, other sectors of the economy, and the conservation of native biodiversity. Although ants have received considerable attention in Hawaii, many questions regarding the factors that determine their distributions and influence patterns of species co-occurrence remain largely unexplored. More focus has been directed at their ecological effects, both in agriculture, where they tend pestiferous homopteran insects, and in natural areas, where they can directly threaten native invertebrates and vertebrates and indirectly impact native plants. Increased awareness of the negative repercussions of ant introductions in Hawaii has led to improvements in preventative quarantine policy in the last decade, however agencies responsible for ant and other invasive species interdiction remain severely understaffed. Efforts to control or eradicate ant infestations for conservation purposes in Hawaii represent a recent development, and have so far met with variable success. Such efforts may also require a greater investment to improve results. The threat of other destructive ant species, such as the red imported fire ant, arriving in Hawaii underscores the importance of an early detection network and an established infrastructure ready for rapid response.
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    Pyronyl Crop Spray Effective in Controlling Larvae of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus [Skuse] [Diptera: Culicidae]) in Non-Circulating Hydroponic Nutrient Solution
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Furutani, S.C. ; Arita-Tsutsumi, L. ; Kratky, B.A.
    One to two ppm of Pyronyl Crop Spray (Pyronyl) effectively controlled larvae of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The mean LT99 was 35.8 hrs for 1.0 ppm and 2.3 hrs for 2.0 ppm Pyronyl. Pyronyl concentrations of 0, 0.062, 0.125 and 0.25 ppm resulted in similar time to the LT99 (greater than 200 hrs). Pyronyl mixed in the nutrient solution at 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 ppm did not reduce the mean head weight of lettuce grown in the nutrient solution for 5 weeks. Pyronyl at these concentrations did not affect root weight at 1.25 and 2.5 ppm, but a slight reduction in root weight was observed at 5.0 ppm. Based on these results, Pyronyl is an effective compound for commercial non-circulating hydroponic lettuce growers to use against A. albopictus. Growers typically add approximately 4.0 L of nutrient solution per plant, utilizing this approximation, 1.0 ml of Pyronyl solution per 125 plants would provide A. albopicuts control.
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    Seasonal Occurrence of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Ports of Entry on the Island of Kauai
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Yang, Pingjun ; Furumizo, Roy T. ; Tanglin, Leroy ; Tekekuma, Clyde
    The populations (represented by egg numbers) of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) at three ports of entry on the island of Kauai, Hawaii have been monitored for two years by use of “ovitraps”. At the two undisturbed environments (the Nawiliwili Harbor and the Port Allen Harbor) the populations of A. albopictus went through a seasonal cycle. A distinct peak appeared in late spring or early summer. At a disturbed environment (the Lihue Airport) both abundance and pattern of occurrence of A. albopictus were affected. At the two wetter sites (the Lihue Airport and the Nawiliwili Harbor), no significant correlation was found between the egg numbers and rainfalls. However, at the drier site (the Port Allen Harbor) correlation between the egg numbers and rainfalls were significant. Also, our results showed that there were no significant differences between the average monthly egg numbers per trap from 2001 and 2002 at each site, indicating that populations were quite stable during these two years.
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    Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), a New Pest of Pineapple in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Vorsino, Adam E. ; Taniguchi, Glen Y. ; Wright, Mark G.
    This note is the first report of recent infestations of pineapple by Opogona sacchari in Hawaii. Brief notes on damage levels inflicted by O. sacchari on pineapple are reported.
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    Evaluation of Trimedlure Bait Field Duration under Florida Field Conditions
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Salvato, Mark ; Holler, Tim
    A study was conducted to determine the effect of trimedlure (TML) bait field duration on recovery of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) under west central Florida conditions. Jackson traps baited with TML soft plugs were placed in residential (N = 80) and industrial (N = 40) settings, then monitored weekly. Traps were monitored to determine if TML bait at three- or six- week field duration had a greater attractiveness towards C. capitata. In all but one instance, traps with three-week field duration achieved higher C. capitata yield than traps baited in the field for six weeks. However, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in trap yield as a result of bait age. Given these data, maintaining Jackson traps on six-week duration bait is more cost effective with no significant recovery loss due to attractiveness to sterile release C. capitata in a residential setting.
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    Attraction of Gravid Females of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes nocturnus (Diptera: Culicidae) to New Jersey Light Traps on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Yang, Pingjun ; Furumizo, Roy T. ; Tangalin, Leroy ; Takekuma, Clyde
    Gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Aedes nocturnus (Theobald) were collected in New Jersey light traps from March 2002 to February 2003 on the Island of Kauai. The monthly gravid rate (proportion of gravid females to all females) and average number of undeposited eggs per gravid female were obtained from the third week collections in the month. Culex quinquefasciatus had much higher gravid rates (0.56–0.98) than A. nocturnus (0–0.24). The monthly average number of undeposited eggs per gravid female was significantly different between these two species. The range was from 80.9 to 163.1 eggs for C. quinquefasciatus, and 29.8 to 71.7 eggs for A. nocturnus. For both species, no significant peaks were found for monthly gravid rate and monthly average number of undeposited eggs per gravid female. This study demonstrates a means of collecting gravid females of C. quinquefasciatus and A. nocturnus and also provides a method of collecting information of the fecundity from wild mosquito populations.
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    First Records of Corythucha gossypii (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Hawaii, Including Notes on Host Plants
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Miller, Laura T. ; Nagamine, Walter T.
    Corythucha gossypii (Hemiptera: Tingidae) is reported for the first time from Hawaii, on the islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. It has been found feeding on 24 different hosts, representing 9 families, with the greatest number of records from the Fabaceae. Notes on sites of collection, published host plants, and Hawaiian host plants records are included.
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    Dulinius conchatus Distant (Hemiptera: Tingidae), Considered and Rejected as a Potential Biological Control Agent of Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae), an Invasive Weed in Hawaii and Florida
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Pemberton, Robert W. ; Murai, Kenneth ; Pratt, Paul D. ; Teramoto, Kenneth
    Dulinius conchatus Distant, a potential biological control agent of Paederia foetida L., an invasive weed in Hawaii and Florida, was collected in Japan and brought into quarantine for host specificity testing. Testing indicated that this lace bug, which is native to India but introduced to Japan, lacked the needed specificity, thereby eliminating it from further consideration. The lace bug is expanding its geographic range in Japan.
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    Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Banana Aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Banana Plantations on Oahu
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Young, Cheryl L. ; Wright, Mark G.
    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) severely affects the sustainability of Hawaii’s banana crop industry. Although the virus rarely kills the plant, infection severely limits production of marketable fruit. The only known vector of BBTV is the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa, Hemiptera: Aphididae). This study was conducted on three farms located in Kahuku, Waialua and Waianae on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Within each farm, 16 plots were set up in a grid pattern for monthly sampling. Average numbers of aphids were compared with ANOVA for each farm by month. Taylor’s Power Law was used to determine dispersion within plantations. There were no distinct patterns in seasonal distribution, but aphid numbers were negatively correlated with rainfall in some plantations. An aggregated dispersion pattern was evident in plantations with lesser cultural management inputs. We also observed a seasonal edge-effect (larger numbers of aphids closest to plantations’ edges). Due to the vector status of banana aphid, an understanding of the seasonal and spatial distribution of banana aphids is an important component in developing efficient BBTV management strategies.
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    Does Mating with Ginger Root Oil-Exposed Males Confer Fitness Benefits to Female Mediterranean Fruit Flies, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)?
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2005-11) Shelly, Todd E.
    Females of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), mate preferentially with males previously exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil, which contains the known male attractant α-copaene, over non-exposed males. As males of certain insect species are capable of absorbing and metabolizing air-borne molecules, this study examined whether females gain fitness benefits through mating with ginger root oil-exposed males, who might transfer oil-derived compounds during mating. Four components of fitness — female fecundity, female longevity, egg hatch, and egg-to-pupal development — were measured in the laboratory for females mated to exposed and non-exposed males. Despite female preference for oil-exposed males, mating with such males did not result in elevated performance for any of the four parameters measured. The evolution of female mate choice in C. capitata is discussed in light of these findings.