Pacific Science Volume 24, Number 4, 1970

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    24: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970)
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    A Morphological and Mineralogical Study of the Gray Hydromorphic Soils of the Hawaiian Islands!
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Hussain, M.S. ; Swindale, L.D.
    Gray hydromorphic soils are imperfectly to poorly drained soils that occur on the coastal fringes of the Hawaiian Islands on surfaces of Pleistocene to Recent age. Mottling is characteristic of the soils, and gley horizons occur in the more hydromorphic soils in the group . As the soils become hydromorphic, soil color values increase and structures deteriorate. Halloysite is the dominant clay mineral in the less hydromorphic soils and montmorillonite is dominant in the more hydromorphic soils of the group . The montmorillonite is iron-rich and in one soil has the formula (XO.74Ko.1l) (Si7.52Al0.48)^IV (Al1.85Fe1.60^3+MgO.35Ti0. l0 )^VI O20(OH)4. Hydrated halloysite occurs in all the soils studied, but it is most abundant in the more hydromorphic soils. Although the soils are derived from different alluvial materials, the trend of increasing montmorillonite and increasing hydrated halloysite with increasing hydromorphism is clearly related to the pedogenic processes operating in the soils. Similar mineralogical trends are found with increasing depth in each soil.
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    Seismic Studies of Subsurface Structure in the Ewa Coastal Plain, Oahu, Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Furumoto, A.S. ; Campbell, J.F. ; Hussong, D.M.
    Seismic studies using well-logging, refraction, and reflection methods were carried out in 1965 in conjunction with a core-sample drilling project in the Ewa Coastal Plain, Oahu, Hawaii. The seismic well-logging technique gave a complicated velocity-depth profile, with higher velocities associated with reef limestone and lower velocities associated with mud deposits. The seismic refraction method showed a simpler velocity-depth profile with only a few distinct layers. The seismic reflection method corroborated the simpler profile obtained with the refraction method. The two profiles were reconciled, as the complicated profile can be averaged out into the simpler profile. The averaging-out process can be applied to the whole sedimentary column so that a P-wave velocity value may represent the sedimentary layer at any given locality. However, no single value can be assigned as typical for sedimentary layers for the entire Hawaiian area. The velocity values depend upon the composition of the layer, which is made up of varying proportions of mud, reef limestone, and weathered basalt. Layer 2 of the oceanic crust in the Hawaiian area has a rather uniform character, with seismic velocities ranging from 4.8 to 5.1 km/sec, and thicknesses from 4 to 8 km.
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    Record of the Brahminy Blind Snake, Typhlops braminus, from the Island of Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Lieberman, Diana D. ; Lieberman, Milton E.
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    A Second Prionotus birostratus Richardson, with Notes on the Distribution of Prionotus in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean (Pisces, Triglidae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Gruchy, C.G.
    The second specimen of Prionotus birostratu s Richardson, 1845, is described and figured; its known range is extended southward approximately 1,000 miles from the Gulf of Fonseca to Ecuador. Significant range extensions for P. horrens (southward to Ecuador) and for P. loxias and P. albirostris (west to the Galapagos Archipelago) are included. These four species are new to the fauna of Ecuador. The distribution of all species of Prionotus known in the southeastern Pacific Ocean is summarized.
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