Pacific Science Volume 24, Number 4, 1970

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    24: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970)
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    A Morphological and Mineralogical Study of the Gray Hydromorphic Soils of the Hawaiian Islands!
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Hussain, M.S. ; Swindale, L.D.
    Gray hydromorphic soils are imperfectly to poorly drained soils that occur on the coastal fringes of the Hawaiian Islands on surfaces of Pleistocene to Recent age. Mottling is characteristic of the soils, and gley horizons occur in the more hydromorphic soils in the group . As the soils become hydromorphic, soil color values increase and structures deteriorate. Halloysite is the dominant clay mineral in the less hydromorphic soils and montmorillonite is dominant in the more hydromorphic soils of the group . The montmorillonite is iron-rich and in one soil has the formula (XO.74Ko.1l) (Si7.52Al0.48)^IV (Al1.85Fe1.60^3+MgO.35Ti0. l0 )^VI O20(OH)4. Hydrated halloysite occurs in all the soils studied, but it is most abundant in the more hydromorphic soils. Although the soils are derived from different alluvial materials, the trend of increasing montmorillonite and increasing hydrated halloysite with increasing hydromorphism is clearly related to the pedogenic processes operating in the soils. Similar mineralogical trends are found with increasing depth in each soil.
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    Seismic Studies of Subsurface Structure in the Ewa Coastal Plain, Oahu, Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Furumoto, A.S. ; Campbell, J.F. ; Hussong, D.M.
    Seismic studies using well-logging, refraction, and reflection methods were carried out in 1965 in conjunction with a core-sample drilling project in the Ewa Coastal Plain, Oahu, Hawaii. The seismic well-logging technique gave a complicated velocity-depth profile, with higher velocities associated with reef limestone and lower velocities associated with mud deposits. The seismic refraction method showed a simpler velocity-depth profile with only a few distinct layers. The seismic reflection method corroborated the simpler profile obtained with the refraction method. The two profiles were reconciled, as the complicated profile can be averaged out into the simpler profile. The averaging-out process can be applied to the whole sedimentary column so that a P-wave velocity value may represent the sedimentary layer at any given locality. However, no single value can be assigned as typical for sedimentary layers for the entire Hawaiian area. The velocity values depend upon the composition of the layer, which is made up of varying proportions of mud, reef limestone, and weathered basalt. Layer 2 of the oceanic crust in the Hawaiian area has a rather uniform character, with seismic velocities ranging from 4.8 to 5.1 km/sec, and thicknesses from 4 to 8 km.
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    Record of the Brahminy Blind Snake, Typhlops braminus, from the Island of Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Lieberman, Diana D. ; Lieberman, Milton E.
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    A Second Prionotus birostratus Richardson, with Notes on the Distribution of Prionotus in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean (Pisces, Triglidae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Gruchy, C.G.
    The second specimen of Prionotus birostratu s Richardson, 1845, is described and figured; its known range is extended southward approximately 1,000 miles from the Gulf of Fonseca to Ecuador. Significant range extensions for P. horrens (southward to Ecuador) and for P. loxias and P. albirostris (west to the Galapagos Archipelago) are included. These four species are new to the fauna of Ecuador. The distribution of all species of Prionotus known in the southeastern Pacific Ocean is summarized.
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    Two New Species of Frogfishes (Antennariidae) from Easter Island
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Allen, Gerald R.
    Two new species of frogfishes, Antennarius randalli and Antennarius moai, are described from Easter Island. The closest relative of the former is A. pauciradictus and of the latter, A. verrucosus, both from the western Atlantic.
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    A Review of the Eel Genera Leptenchelys and Muraenichthys, with the Description of a New Genus, Schismorhynchus , and a New Species, Muraenichthys chilensis
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) McCosker, John E.
    The echeline genus Leptenchelys is recognized as monotypic and differs markedly from Muraenichthys. Schismorhynchus, genus novum, is erected for Muraenichthys labialis Seale. The genus Muraenichthys contains 19 known species in the tropical, subtropical, and temperate Indo-Pacific Ocean. M. chilensis, a new species showing affinities to southern Australian congeners, is the first known from the New World. The present distribution of Muraenichthys and of the closely related genera Schultzidia and Schismorhynchus is perhaps explained by paleogeography, paleoclimatology, and adult habitat preferences. Muraenichthys species may be grouped by differences in posterior nostril condition, dentition, and head pore placement. The following changes in taxonomy are proposed : Leptenchelys pinnaceps Schultz = Callechelys melanotaenia Bleeker. Muraenichthys tasmaniensis McCulloch and Scolenchelys tasmaniensis smithi Whitley = Muraenichthys vermiformis Peters. M. ogilbyi Fowler = M. macropterus Bleeker.
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    A Key to the Genera of the Ophichthid Eels, with Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Species from the Eastern Pacific
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Rosenblatt, Richard H. ; McCosker, John E.
    A key is presented to distinguish the 44 recognized genera of the Ophichthidae. Two new genera are described: Ethadophis, represented by E. byrnei n, sp. (the genotype) and E. merenda n, sp., and Leuropharus (genotype L. lasiops n. sp.). The following new generic synonymies are proposed: Omocbelys Fowler 1918 = Pisoodonophis Kaup, 1856; Hesperomyrus Myers and Storey, 1939 = Myrophis Lutken, 1851; Cryptopterygium Ginsburg 1951 = Callechelys Kaup, 1856.
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    Mucous Envelope Formation in Two Species of Hawaiian Parrotfishes (Genus Scarus)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Byrne, John E.
    Some parrotfishes have developed a unique capacity to form a mucous envelope at night. Scarus dubius and S. perspicillatus are two Hawaiian species that exhibit envelope-building behavior. Laboratory experiments indicate that envelope formation is promoted by darkness, and is inhibited by constant light. The completed envelope is a transparent, mucous cocoon surrounding the fish. A mass of glandular tissue was found in the buccal cavity of S. dubius and S. perspicillatuS. It is suggested that this tissue is the envelope-producing gland.
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    The Effect of Starvation on the Lipid and Carbohydrate Levels of the Gut of the Tropical Sea Urchin Echinometra mathaei (de Blainville)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-10) Lawrence, J.M.
    The utilization during starvation of the nutrient reserves in the gut of a temperate water sea urchin , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, was measured by Lawrence et al. (1966) . There have been no investigations of the utilization of reserves in the gut of tropical urchins, although the level of reserves in the gut of several tropical species has been reported (Giese et al., 1964; Lawrence, 1967). The results presented in this paper concern the levels of total lipid, neutral lipid, and carbohydrate, and the changes that occur with starvation in the gut of the tropical sea urchin Echinometra mathaei (de Blainville).
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