Pacific Science Volume 24, Number 2, 1970

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Phalloid Fungi in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Goos, R.D.
    The order Phallales, as outlined by Cunningham (1942) and Zeller (1949), contains three families and approximately 20 genera of fleshy basidiomycetes, which, because of their usually stalked fruiting bodies and foetid odor, are commonly called "the stinkhorns." The group includes some of the most bizarre and unusual of the fungi.
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    Investigation of the Benthic Marine Flora of Hood Canal, Washington
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Phillips, Ronald C. ; Fleenor, Bill
    Hood Canal is a fjord (Kollmeyer, 1965) connected to Puget Sound (Fig. 1) . Water in the canal was reported as highly stratified owing to a large volume of freshwater runoff from the Olympic Mountains (Kollmeyer, 1965). The water mass is relatively isolated from that of Puget Sound proper by an entrance sill at Vinland, 44 meters deep, 22.36 km (12 nautical miles) south of Admiralty Inlet. Owing to a lack of investigation
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    Microbial Biomass In the Euphotic Zone of the North Pacific Subarctic Water
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Seki, Humitake
    Microbiological investigations were made in the North Pacific subarctic water during spring of 1969. Total bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, yeasts, and glucose uptake by microorganisms were measured in the euphotic zone. There was no heterogeneity in the distribution of microbial biomasses between Alaskan Gyre, mid-Pacific transitional water, and Western Gyre. Another statistical analysis showed that there was microzonation in the microbial distribution but no specific vertical distribution of total bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, and glucose uptake. The microbial biomass in the euphotic zone of the North Pacific subarctic water in spring was estimated to be (3 .0 ± 1.4) X 10^3 clumps of total bacteria per ml, 2.1 ± 1.9 clumps of heterotrophic bacteria per 10 ml, and a glucose-carbon uptake of 89 ± 32 μg per m^3 per day.
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    Studies on Singapore Pollen
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Rao, A.N. ; Lee, Y.K.
    The pollen flora of Singapore and Malaya has been studied very little despite the wealth of the lush tropical vegetation. In well-known works on pollen morphology (Wodehouse, 1935; Erdtman, 1952) few of the indigenous plants of Southeast Asia have been described and most of the descriptions are based on herbarium material. About five years ago, when several requests were made for identification of certain pollens in connection with a few allergic cases reported in the local hospitals, an interest developed in the study of Singapore pollen. Since then a reference pollen collection of about 400 local species has been built up in the Botany Department of the University of Singapore, and a study on the morphological characters of the pollen of these plants has been undertaken. This paper is the first report of these studies. The valuable works of Cranwell (1953), Erdtman (1943, 1952), Faegri and Iversen (1964), Hyde and Adams (1958), Nair (1965), and Wodehouse (1935), and the journals Grana Palynologica, Botanical Review (Faegri, 1956), and Pollen et Spores were consulted as chief sources of reference. The pollen characters of about 85 species which have not been described in these earlier works are dealt with here, and another eight species are redescribed to indicate the variations displayed by local forms.
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    The "Staminodia" of the Genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) and Three New Hawaiian Species. Hawaiian Plant Studies 32
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) St. John, Harold
    The genus Schiedea was described in 1826 by Chamisso and Schlechtendal, based upon the single species S. ligustrina. Successive botanists made new discoveries in, and added more species to, the genus. Lastly, Sherff (1945), published a monograph of the genus, classifying it into 19 species and 21 varieties, all endemic in the Hawaiian Islands. Since then Sherff or Degener and Sherff have added six more varieties.
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    Submarine Canyons and the Shelf along the North Coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Ridge
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Mathewson, Christopher C.
    The north insular shelf of Molokai is a smooth plain, gently dipping seaward, with three slight steps, one occurring between the 30- and 60-foot isobaths, one between the 150- and 180-foot isobaths, and one near the 300-foot isobath. The shelf break occurs near the 500-foot isobath. Off East Molokai Volcano the shelf is cut by eleven submarine canyons; along West Molokai it is unbroken except for one canyon. About half the canyons have bowl-shaped heads; the remainder have V-shaped heads. The canyons originate about 1 mile offshore. Seismic reflection data show that the insular shelf is covered by a thin veneer of sediments, 0.005 to 0.025 seconds of reflection time, thickening seaward. The veneer is underlain by another series of reflectors, the deepest being 0.05 seconds 1 mile from shore and 0.25 seconds 3 miles from shore. The Molokai submarine canyons appear to have originated from subaerial erosion, which was followed by island subsidence with sediment deposition on the shelf and transport in the canyons. The geomorphology of the north slope of Molokai appears to have developed through erosion and deposition operating upon a subsiding volcanic island, rather than through the action of a giant submarine landslide.
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    Movement Patterns of Field Rodents in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Tomich, P. Quentin
    The setting for a 10-year study of the ecology of the plague organism is described. Four rodents, Mus musculas, Rattus exulans, R. rattus and R. norvegicus, were investigated during 1959-64 by the mark-and-release method, with numerous grids and lines of traps set in coastal fields of sugar cane and in adjacent uncultivated lands, primarily rugged gulches. Fluctuations in population densities are related to season, to cultural practices for sugar cane, and to the movement and home range of rodents. Harvest of the cane is a catastrophe for rodent populations in the fields, and few that escape to adjacent lands survive to become established there. Patterns of movement are remarkably similar in the four species, but gradients toward longer movements follow trends for greater body size. Significant differences in distances moved are derived between species and between sexes within species, in time and in different habitats. Home range and local movement of the field rodents of Hawaii have many parallels with those of the same species as reported in other regions of the world and in other cultural surroundings, but direct comparisons are seldom possible because of differences in methods used and in environmental conditions.
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    Covering Response of the Echinoid Evechinus chloroticus (Val.)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Dix, Trevor G.
    Field and laboratory observations suggest that the covering response of Evechinus chloroticus is not significantly related to light avoidance. A positive response of the podia to contact stimuli elicits covering .which may be important for the capture of food, particularly algal debris.
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    A Numerical Taxonomic Study of Hawaiian Reef Corals
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Powers, Dennis
    Sixty characters were measured and used in multivariate statistical programs to study the systematics of 20 species of Hawaiian corals. Correlation and distance phenograms and a computer-generated, three-dimensional model were used to develop phenetic rankings of species groups at levels corresponding to the taxonomic categories of genus, family, and, provisionally, suborders.
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    Opisthobranch Mollusks from the Southern Tropical Pacific
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-04) Marcus, Ernst ; Marcus, Eveline
    Twenty-four species of opisthobranchs are listed from the southern tropical Pacific Ocean, from Fiji and the Ellice Islands eastward to the Tuamotus. Two new genera are described: Pleurebdera (Pleurobranchidae; type species: P. haraldi n. sp., Tuamotus) and Pupsikus (Dorididae; type species: P. pinguis n. sp., Tahiti). The following five other new species and subspecies are described and figured : Noumea norba (Dorididae: Chromodoridinae, Viti Levu, Fiji); Peronodoris rebderi (Dorididae: Archidoridinae, Tahiti); Tayuva ketos juva (Dorididae: Discodoridinae, Rurutu , Tubuai Islands ); Phyllidia tula (Phyllidiidae, Nukulaelae, Ellice Islands); Phyllidia soria (Tahiti) . The internal anatomy of these species, as well as of many of the previously known species, is described. Many species are recorded from Polynesia for the first time.
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