Pacific Science, Volume 65, Number 4, 2011

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    Thysanoptera of the Galápagos Islands
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-10) Hoddle, Mark S. ; Mound, Laurence A.
    Thysanoptera from the Galápagos Islands were inventoried from 627 slide-mounted specimens that were made with material that had been stored at the Reference Collection of Terrestrial Invertebrates at the Charles Darwin Research Station, Galápagos, Ecuador. Museum material was complemented by field collections conducted over the period October – November 2009. This inventory was augmented from records in the published literature. Identification of museum and field-collected material added an additional 27 species to the already known fauna, an increase of 54%. A total of 77 species of thrips from 42 genera in four families is now known from 17 different islands in the Galápagos. At least nine species are serious pests, of which four, Frankliniella occidentalis, Gynaikothrips uzeli, Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci, are reported from the Galápagos Islands in the primary scientific literature for the first time.
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    Reptiles of the Hall Islands, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-10) Buden, Donald W.
    Thirteen species of reptiles are recorded from the Hall Islands, all but two sea turtles for the first time. None of the 11 species of lizards (six geckos, five skinks) is endemic, and most are widely distributed throughout Micronesia and often well beyond. Emoia boettgeri has the most limited range, which extends from Chuuk State in the central Caroline Islands eastward to the Marshall Islands. Emoia caeruleocauda is the most common skink, and Lepidodactylus lugubris is the most common gecko. The apparent absence of other common Micronesian species, such as Nactus pelagicus, Emoia cyanura, E. impar, and Lipinia noctua is unexpected and possibly an artifact of limited sampling. A recent incident of turtle poisoning (chelonitoxism) attributed to the consumption of hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, resulted in the death of six Murilo Atoll islanders and sickened many others.
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    Earthstars (Geastrum, Myriostoma) of the Hawaiian Islands Including Two New Species, Geastrum litchiforme and Geastrum reticulatum
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-10) Hemmes, D.E. ; Desjardin, D.E.
    An updated, annotated list of earthstars found in the Hawaiian Islands is presented that includes 19 species of Geastrum and Myriostoma coliforme. Favored habitats for these gasteroid fungi include periodically wet windward coastal Casuarina groves, windward Leucaena thickets, and leeward coastal Prosopis groves. In contrast to these nonnative vegetation zones, earthstars such as Geastrum minimum, G. campestre, and G. corollinum are found also in largely native leeward montane Sophora/Myoporum forests, whereas Geastrum velutinum and G. reticulatum appear in montane native Acacia koa/Metrosideros forests. Eighty-two percent of the collections were made between September and February, although Geastrum triplex may be found earlier during the summer months. Two species, Geastrum litchiforme Desjardin & Hemmes and Geastrum reticulatum Desjardin & Hemmes, are described as new, accompanied by illustrations and comparisons with allied taxa. Geastrum xerophilum, originally published without Latin diagnosis, is formally validated. Specific collections are documented and island distribution and preferred habitats of the various species are listed. An artificial dichotomous key to aid in identification is provided.
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    Pittosporum halophilum Rock (Pittosporaceae: Apiales): Rediscovery,Taxonomic Assessment, and Conservation Status of a Critically Endangered Endemic Species from Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-10) Wood, Kenneth R. ; Kiehn, Michael
    Pittosporum halophilum Rock originally was known only from the type collections made in 1910 and 1911 along the windward sea cliffs of Moloka‘i. In the most recent revision of Hawaiian Pittosporum it was treated as synonymous with the more common species P. confertiflorum A. Gray. Since 1994, several plants fitting the circumscription of P. halophilum have been discovered near the type locality. Careful studies of these individuals and of plants cultivated from their seeds clearly revealed that they are not only characterized by salt tolerance, but differ from P. confertiflorum also in several other characters (i.e., a small, shrubby habit; smaller leaves with cuneate bases and unique tan to golden yellow wooly dense tomentum on abaxial leaf surfaces; shorter petioles; subcuboid to ovoid capsules; and, in most individuals, functionally unisexual flowers). Based on these substantial differences we conclude that P. halophilum merits recognition on species level. In this paper we give a detailed description of P. halophilum including remarks on its conservation status.
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    Fasciation in Invading Common Mullein, Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae): Testing the Roles of Genetic and Environmental Factors
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-10) Ansari, Shahin ; Daehler, Curtis C.
    In Hawai‘i, Verbascum thapsus L. exhibits high rates of fasciation, which could have ecological and evolutionary consequences for spread of this noxious weed. Fasciated plants produce more seed capsules on average; however, the cause of fasciation in V. thapsus is not known. This study investigated whether fasciation in V. thapsus has a simple genetic basis, or whether it is caused by physical damage or pathogenic bacteria. Plants derived from self-pollinated fasciated and normal plants were grown in a field common garden and subjected to mechanical damage (simulated herbivory) and natural herbivory. Bacteria cultured from normal and fasciated plants were compared, and field plants were inoculated with a slurry of fasciated tissue. In the common garden, 31% of plants developed fasciation, but fasciation did not follow a simple monogenic pattern of inheritance. Artificial damage substantially reduced fasciation rates; damaged plants were between 1.3 and 32 times less likely to become fasciated, compared with undamaged plants. Bacterial isolates were similar between normal and fasciated plants and no inoculated plants developed fasciation, suggesting that bacteria do not cause fasciation. Fasciated and normal plants often grow less than 1m apart, indicating that climatic factors are not inducers of fasciation. Localized combinations of environmental conditions in Hawai‘i may promote frequent and persistent fasciation.