Volume 38 - December 2006 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Trichogramma papilionis (Nagarkatti), the First Recorded Trichogramma Species to Parasitize Eggs in the Family Limacodidae
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Conant, Patrick ; Hirayama, Clyde K. ; Kishimoto, Christopher M. ; Hara, Arnold H.
    Trichogramma papilionis (Nagarkatti) was found parasitizing eggs of Darna pallivitta (Moore). This is the first confirmed record of an identified species of Trichogramma attacking Limacodidae eggs. Rates of parasitism and biology of T. papilionis are reported as well as its potential efficacy as a biological control agent in Hawaii. This is also the first record of T. papilionis from the Island of Hawaii.
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    First report of Nezara viridula f. aurantiaca (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Golden, Mary ; Follett, Peter A.
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    Laboratory study of predation by Curinus coeruleus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on eggs of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Yang, Pingjun
    The lady beetle, Curinus coeruleus (Mulsant), a biological control agent of the coconut mealybug, Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and the psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, was examined for its ability to consume Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eggs in the laboratory. Most C. coeruleus larvae in this test preyed on A. albopictus eggs (75% for the 2nd and 3rd instar and 71% for the 4th instar). The 2nd and 3rd instar larvae consumed an average of 51.8 eggs compared to an average of 57.7 eggs consumed by the 4th instar larvae. The 2nd and 3rd instar larvae survived for an average of 5.3 days, while the 4th instar larvae survived for an average of 5.6 days. Curinus coeruleus could not complete its life cycle by feeding only on A. albopictus eggs. Aedes albopictus eggs, which are available year round in Hawaii, may be a supplemental food source for C. coeruleus larvae when there is a shortage of psyllids.
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    Field Discovery of a Pearly Eye Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Mutant
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Harris, Ernest J. ; Mangine, Thomas E. ; Uchida, Grant K.
    A single female pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was reared from field collected ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis L. Allele analysis of pearly eye revealed that it is a mutation that was determined to be autosomal recessive and a true breeding strain. We examined further genetic crosses of normal and pearly eye to evaluate its potential for use as a genetic marker in SIT programs.
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    Distribution of Chromolaena odorata and its Biological Control in Taiwan
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Lai, Po-Yung ; Muniappan, R. ; Wang, Tzu-Hui ; Wu, Chin-Jung
    Chromolaena odorata, introduced about 15 years ago to the southern part of Taiwan as a medicinal plant has become an invasive weed and has already spread to the counties of Pingtung, Kaohsiung, Tainan, Chiayi, Yunlin, Changhau, Taichung, and Taitung. An eriophyid mite, Acalitus adoratus, has been fortuitously introduced but is not effective in controlling C. odorata. Two effective natural enemies, a moth, Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata and a gall fly, Cecidochares connexa have been imported from Guam into the quarantine facility at the National Pingtung University of Science and Technology for host-specificity testing and field release upon approval by the quarantine authority.
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    Efficacy of the "Mitchell Station," a New Bait-Station for the Control of the Caribbean Fruit Fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Holler, Tim ; Gillett, Jennifer ; Sivinski, John ; Moses, Amy ; Mitchell, Everett
    Insecticide bait sprays for the control of fruit flies are often applied to nonagricultural areas. As a result urban populations and environmentalists have expressed concerns for both human health and the conservation of nontarget organisms. One alternative to bait sprays is the deployment of portable bait units which attract pests to a limited number of sites and there expose them to the toxicant. The late Dr. Everett Mitchell designed such an "attract and kill" device and considered the possibility of its use in fruit fly suppression / eradication programs. The ability of this "Mitchell Station" (=MS), with or without the addition of an ammonium acetate and putrescine attractant, to kill Caribbean fruit flies (Anastrepha suspensa [Loew]) was compared in field cages to the standard McPhail and Multi Lure® traps. The MS station was not as efficient as either the McPhail or Multi-lure traps. However, it would be considerably less expensive to manufacture and deploy, and might find a niche within area-wide management programs. Subsequent deployment of the MS in the field significantly suppressed previously released populations of sterile A. suspensa.
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    Test of Effectiveness of Newly Formulated Plastic Matrix with Methyl Eugenol for Monitoring Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) Populations
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Hiramoto, Matthew K. ; Arita-Tsutsumi, Lorna ; Jang, Eric
    Methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1-2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate) is a commonly occurring plant phenylpropanoid which is a highly attractive lure to the male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Twelve plastic bucket traps were hung in a row of Norfolk pine trees. Each trap contained either 4 ml of methyl eugenol on a cotton dental wick, 2 g methyl eugenol plastic matrix (hereafter called a “plug”), or an untreated dental wick (as a control). After 5 months and 12 days the control wick was charged with 2 ml of liquid methyl eugenol and was subsequently recharged every two weeks. Results showed that the 4 ml treated wick and the 2 gram plastic methyl eugenol plug had no significant difference in catch per trap per day for the first 2 months. Although the plug actually averaged higher catch the difference was not significant by analysis of variance with or without repeated measures. Using the repeated measures analysis, date was the most significant factor, although there was no interaction between the effects of lure and date. In the subsequent 2 months, the plastic lures continued to catch at a declining rate (mean 36.7 ± 15.0% of the 4 ml lure on a cotton wick). The data suggest that the plastic lure could be used for 2 months where temperatures are not extreme. In exclusion programs maximum rate of catch is a requirement, but that is not necessary for population suppression. For the latter purpose, the 2 ml methyl eugenol plug could be used longer than two months, or the matrix could be adjusted to hold a larger volume of lure. A plug containing 5 g of methyl eugenol was able to catch flies efficiently for one year. Fly capture was more efficient in one-way entrance traps than in traps containing toxicant.
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    A Subgroup Structure for the Modified Mouthparts Species Group of Hawaiian Drosophila
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Magnacca, Karl N. ; O’Grady, Patrick M.
    Here we present the first complete subgroup-level classification of the modified mouthparts group of Hawaiian Drosophila. Previously, only three small groups had been proposed, accounting for only a third of the known species in this large group. The modified mouthparts group, as now defined, consists of fourteen subgroups: adventitia (1 described species), bridwelli (9), ceratostoma (2), dissita (14), freycinetiae (5), fuscoamoeba (8), hirtitarsus (1), mimica (20), mitchelli (5), nanella (1), quadrisetae (4), scolostoma (3), semifuscata (5), and setiger (4). One species, D. tetraspilota, is unknown in the male and remains unplaced. At least 40 undescribed species from all except the mimica and scolostoma subgroups are present in collections. Three new synonymies are recognized in the current paper: Drosophila vicaria Hardy, 1965 n. syn. is a junior synonym of Drosophila amydrospilota Hardy 1965, Drosophila aethostoma Hardy and Kaneshiro, 1968 n. syn. is a junior synonym of Drosophila humeralis Grimshaw, 1901, and Drosophila odontostoma Kam and Perreira, 2003 n. syn. is a junior synonym of Drosophila chaetopeza Hardy, 1965.
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    Potential Host Range of the Newly Introduced Aphid Parasitoid Aphidius transcaspicus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Wang, Xin-geng ; Messing, Russell H.
    Aphidius transcaspicus Telenga, a mealy plum aphid (Hyalopterus pruni Geoffroy) parasitoid from the Mediterranean, was recently introduced into Hawaii for control of invasive aphids. Under laboratory conditions the parasitoid successfully attacked several important aphid pests in Hawaii, including the melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, the banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa (Coquerel), the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), the corn leaf aphid Rhopolosiphum maidis (Fitch), and the cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. It could not successfully parasitize the turnip aphid Lipaphis pseudobrassicae Kalt or the black citrus aphid Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe). Field cage tests with P. nigronervosa and M. persicae also showed that A. transcaspicus successfully attacked both host species under semi-natural conditions, and preferred M. persicae over P. nigronervosa.
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    Application of Orange Oil to Pre-Release Holding Boxes Increases the Mating Success of Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Field Cage Trials (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2006-12) Shelly, Todd E. ; Edu, James ; Pahio, Elaine
    Previous research showed that exposure to the aroma of orange oil (Citrus sinensis L.) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however, involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers (volume 400 ml). In implementing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), several programs use plastic adult rearing containers (PARC boxes, 0.48 by 0.60 by 0.33 m) to hold newly emerged males before release (≈ 36,000 males per box). The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of orange oil to individual PARC boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males. Orange oil was applied to paper placed on the screened opening on the top of PARC boxes. Two doses (0.25 and 1.0 ml) were tested, and the paper was either covered by a Petri dish lid (to reduce volatilization) or was left uncovered. Using field cages, we ran mating trials in which oil-exposed (treated) or non-exposed (control) sterile males competed against males from a recently established (from wild flies) colony for females from the same colony. In all trials, the wild-derived males obtained significantly more matings than the sterile males. In those trials involving uncovered, oil-laden paper, there was no difference in mating success between treated and control sterile males. However, when the paper was covered, the treated males obtained significantly more matings than the control males at both doses. These results are compared with similar, previously conducted experiments involving ginger root oil, and the potential use of orange oil in medfly SIT is discussed.