2023 AAMC Western Group Collaborative Spring Conference

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    Konexión Paciente: Redefining Medical Spanish Education for Spanish-Speaking Medical Students Through Patient-Based Simulation
    ( 2023) Langevin, Michael J. ; Abele, James M. ; Muñoz Orozco, Wilkin F. ; Diaz, Kristian G. ; Pau, Candace ; Escobedo, Victor S.

    Background and/or theoretical framework and importance to the field
    The disproportionate lack of Spanish-speaking (SS) physicians in U.S. regions with many SS residents emphasizes the need for increased medical Spanish education. While many schools offer Medical Spanish courses, our co-curricular, simulation-based program (Konexión Paciente/KPAX) aims to optimize learner engagement and outcomes through longitudinal integrated design, provision of feedback using validated assessment instruments, and incorporating issues of equity and inclusion.

    Design
    KPAX is a student-designed optional program that complements the formal clinical skills curriculum. Learners participate in simulated Spanish-language patient encounters adapted from institutionally-validated, English curricular material. Students are assessed on linguistic adaptability, attention to health disparities, and empathy, in addition to clinical skills proficiency. Feedback is provided based on standardized patient checklists for Spanish-language communication, general communication, and task-specific clinical skills, as well as narrative comments from physician facilitators.

    Outcomes
    Students reported greater self-efficacy and comfort in SS encounters after participating in KPAX. Participants also scored significantly higher than nonparticipant peers on general communication skills in a subsequent English curricular OSCE encounter assessing clinical content addressed in a pilot KPAX session (p< 0.001), suggesting that program benefits may extend beyond language skills.

    Innovation's strengths and limitations
    KPAX provides opportunities to engage in higher-order language utilization and emphasizes patient-centeredness and linguistic/ethnocultural diversity in healthcare delivery. Further investigation is needed to address how baseline clinical skills proficiency affects acquisition of language-associated skills, as well as to define the developmental arc of Spanish-language care provision as a competency. The evolution of student performance on the assessment instruments over the course of the program is currently under investigation.

    Feasibility and generalizability
    KPAX empowers future clinician-leaders to care for the SS community. The program can be adapted for any language community at institutions with simulation capabilities, using existing curricular materials.

    References
    Dragan, A. The Importance of Addressing Linguistic Ethno‐cultural Diversity in the Delivery of Public Health Services: a Literature Review. 2009 Dec; Region of Peel Public Health. Accessed Oct 28, 2022. https://tinyurl.com/53hc9mhx.
    Flores-Rodarte J, Topmiller M, Jabbarpour Y. Distribution of Spanish-Speaking Family Physicians, 2013-2019. Am Fam Physician. 2022 Jun;105(6):654-655. PMID: 35713629.
    Marrast LM, Zallman L, Woolhandler S, Bor DH, McCormick D. Minority Physicians’ Role in the Care of Underserved Patients: Diversifying the Physician Workforce May Be Key in Addressing Health Disparities. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(2):289–291. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.12756
    Ortega P, Pérez N, Robles B, Turmelle Y, Acosta D. Strategies for Teaching Linguistic Preparedness for Physicians: Medical Spanish and Global Linguistic Competence in Undergraduate Medical Education. Health Equity. 2019 Jul 1;3(1):312-318. doi: 10.1089/heq.2019.0029. PMID: 31294243; PMCID: PMC6615346.
    Ortega P, Pérez N, Robles B, Turmelle Y, Acosta D. Teaching Medical Spanish to Improve Population Health: Evidence for Incorporating Language Education and Assessment in U.S. Medical Schools. Health Equity. 2019 Nov 1;3(1):557-566. doi: 10.1089/heq.2019.0028. PMID: 31701080; PMCID: PMC6830530.

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    Micro-assessments: A real-time feedback approach to enhance clerkship learning
    ( 2023) Ha, Edward ; Lehman, Debra ; Davis, Heather ; Logan, Benjamin ; Vermillion, Michelle ; Malik, Bushra
    As students progress through the clinical clerkship, they are rapidly incorporating newly learned skills and experiences to apply to subsequent clinical encounters. Working together with learners, faculty, and student affairs leadership to improve our clinical grading system, real-time brief feedback from instructors was identified as the most crucial missing element to the growth and development of our learners. In contrast to end of- rotation feedback, at which point any constructive information would only be useful to future clerkships, real-time documented feedback allows the learner the opportunity to reflect on that feedback and adjust strategies as needed before summative assessment. In this workshop, we demonstrate a micro-assessment tool in which learners can elicit feedback from the teacher immediately after a clinical encounter, then view that feedback within minutes directly on their devices. The disparate impact of assessment in clerkships on students of color has been well-documented. Use of bias mitigation strategies in design and deployment may reduce these disparities making equitable education more accessible to all learners. Standardizing real-time feedback may reduce bias by systematically requiring teachers to document concrete areas for improvement that a learner may act upon prior to summative assessment.
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    Patient-Centered Communication Curriculum: A Pilot Study in Hawaii
    ( 2023) Yeo, Jihun ; Brown, Bryan
    Before AY2022-2023, the described residency program in internal medicine lacked a formal curriculum in patient-centered communication skills. Furthermore, this program accepts a large percentage of international medical graduates compared to other institutions in which communication curricula have been previously studied. We describe application of best practices in curriculum development to address the need for formalized communication skills education through multiple pedagogical approaches for internal medicine residents, including orientation didactics, flipped-classroom clinic didactics with roleplay and videos, and updated direct observation tools, along with corresponding faculty development efforts. While end-of-year post-intervention survey data is pending, surveys completed immediately after didactics showed statistically significant improvements in resident self-reported preparedness for key communication domains identified as the greatest need, including sexual histories, addiction encounters, chronic pain encounters, and difficult encounters.
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    Reinforcing the Basic Sciences with a Student Co-Designed, Integrative High-Fidelity Simulation Curriculum
    ( 2023) Silverman, Ariel ; Gehr, Deshae ; Ghobadi, Ali ; Brar, Harminder ; Nkonde-Price, Chileshe ; Pau, Candace
    Reinforcing the Basic Sciences with a Student Co-Designed, Integrative High-Fidelity Simulation Curriculum
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    Stop, Breathe & Ask: What do I really need right now? A personal development workshop
    ( 2023) Gavero, Gretchenjan
    Health and wellness remain hot topics in work environments, with decades of research on burnout prevention and job satisfaction. While organizational change is a vital intervention in fostering wellness, such efforts often take a significant amount of time and pose multiple systemic barriers (i.e., time, manpower, funding, administrative complexities, etc.). These challenges perpetuate factors that interfere with one’s ability to live a fulfilling life. Professional development efforts such as courses and mentorship programs are helpful resources but often focus on job-specific aims, leaving challenges that impact one’s personal life unaddressed. This scenario creates a loop where personal and professional experiences negatively affect each other. Especially in medicine and education, providers, administrators, educators, and trainees must be equipped with personal development tools to help sustain the passion and drive to perform while fully present in our lives. Attention to personal growth efforts is a helpful strategy that can initiate an immediate change and transform one’s experience without waiting for an entire organization or system to shift. Now imagine what if change can happen now?! The human brain (& body!) has an incredible ability to transform our experiences and send external ripples to influence larger shifts, and it starts within ourselves.
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    Moving the Needle: Changing the Culture Around Professionalism For Faculty As Evaluated by Medical Students
    ( 2023) Molla, Mithu ; Jain, Sharad ; Servis, Mark ; Daniel, Michelle ; Simmons, Emma ; Granillo, Christina

    Moving the needle: Changing the culture around professionalism for faculty as evaluated by medical students

    Rationale
    Professionalism is an integral aspect of physician growth and development and a core competency in medical education. Clinical experiences and faculty role models are the most powerful determinants of professional behaviors and values in the practice of medicine.1,2 Yet, with significantly greater stress placed on clinical faculty in the last 25 years, there has been increasing concern over an erosion of the attitudes and behaviors of practicing physicians and the resulting negative impact on the professional development of medical students and resident physicians3. Given its importance, faculty professionalism is assessed annually in the American Association of Medical Colleges graduate questionnaire (AAMC GQ) survey of fourth year medical students, providing medical education leaders with data on their performance compared to medical schools nationally, as well as year-over-year trends.
    Many schools struggle with faculty professionalism data that is reported through the GQ and their students’ perception of a poorly perceived professional clinical environment. The three schools presenting at this session have received low learning environment scores at different times and have employed interventions to change the culture at their institutions, with varying success, to address the underlying root causes.
    In this session, we will discuss overall challenges of addressing the learning environment and faculty professionalism. After that, each student will report its GQ data, root causes identified, and interventions to address those root causes. After the presentations, participants will break out into small groups and, using a structured guide, review data from their own schools as well as interventions that have been tried to address those issues. Participants will come together at the end for a facilitated discussion to summarize their conversations and discuss ideas and opportunities to bring to their home institution to improve the learning environment.

    Learning Objectives
    • Review the quality improvement approach and interventions that have been shown to be effective at improving professionalism at UC Davis, UC Riverside, and UC San Diego
    • Develop a list of high-impact interventions that can be utilized to improve professionalism in the learning environment at your institution
    • Describe your approach to implementation of interventions unique to your institution and ways in which these incidents can be shared with the broader educational community

    Session Plan
    • 10 minutes: Describe why changing professionalism outcomes is a “wicked problem”
    • 24 minutes: Review the approach and adoption of interventions at UC Davis, UC Riverside, and UC San Diego where these institutions have strived to improve culture of professionalism (8 mins each)
    • 30 minutes: Breakout sessions where participants discuss professionalism challenges at their home institutions and brainstorm interventions to improve their culture.
    • 25 minutes: Plenary group discussion to identify consensus approaches and opportunities to enact culture change

    Products/materials
    • PPT

    Experience
    • Mithu Molla MD – Director of the Learning Environment, Co-Chair Learning Climate Committee, UCD SOM
    • Sharad Jain MD – Associate Dean for Students, Co-Chair Learning Climate Committee, UCD SOM
    • Mark Servis MD – Vice Dean for Medical Education, UCD SOM
    • Christina Granillo, PhD - Director of Academic Success, Chair of the Grievance Committee and co-Chair of our Learning Environment Council
    • Michelle Daniel, MD, MHPE, FACEP - Vice Dean for Medical Education, Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine UC San Diego SOM
    • Emma M Simmons MD, MPH – Senior Associate Dean of Student Affairs, UC Riverside SOM

    Bibliography
    1- Orit Karnieli-Miller, PhD, et al. Medical Students’ Professionalism Narratives: A Window on the Informal and Hidden Curriculum. Academic Medicine, Vol 85, No.1/January 2010
    2- Inui TS, et al. A Flag in the Wind: Educating for Professionalism in Medicine. Washington DC: Association of American Medical Colleges; 2003.
    3- Swick H, et al. Teaching Professionalism in Undergraduate Medical Education. JAMA, September 1, 1999- Vol 282, No.9
    4- Binder R, et al. Preventing and Managing Unprofessionalism in Medical School Faculties. Acad Med. 2015;90:442-446.

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    Evaluating Case Mapping as a Learning Tool for Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education
    ( 2023) Biala, Eduardo, Jr. ; Yamamoto, Marcus ; Lee, Benjamin ; Nishioka, Scott

    The problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum is the core learning modality for medical students at the University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine. Students are first introduced to PBL in MD1 Health and Illness, where they are provided learning tools that complement PBL that solidify the concepts covered in this curriculum. Case mapping, one of the learning tools, is an active form of learning where students make decisions to construct a map that organizes information by grouping facts and concepts. This modality prevents linear focus by illustrating relationships between concepts through cross-links, utilizing higher order learning than rote memorization alone, and fosters self-directed learning. Case mapping has been found to be effective in promoting critical thinking that translates into clinical and diagnostic reasoning.

    Thus, our aim was to introduce case mapping as a supplementary learning tool to evaluate its utility and efficacy for medical students in a PBL curriculum.

    This study collected data from first year medical students (n=57) at the John A. Burns School of Medicine. Students received an instructional session on case mapping and its application to PBL. Following this, students were assigned to construct their own map on the pertinent concepts involving the differential for sore throat and Streptococcal pharyngitis. This assignment was followed by an anonymous, voluntary questionnaire inquiring about their opinions of the value and benefit of case mapping.

    The results showed that students found case mapping to be beneficial in finding correlations between clinical concepts and aided in the retention of biological and clinical learning issues. Students also reported that an electronic based unlimited whiteboard was conducive in the construction of a case map.

    In conclusion, case mapping is an effective learning tool that reinforced active learning that was beneficial in first year medical students introduced to a PBL curriculum. While students found case mapping to be an effective tool, responses demonstrated that more time was spent constructing case maps rather than focusing on content of the learning issues. However, with more exposure to the learning tool and unlimited whiteboard program, students could potentially overcome this learning curve associated with its initial use in medical education. While this study showed how case mapping can be used as a learning tool in the pre-clinical phase of medical education, there is potential to examine its utility in the clerkship phase as a method of organizing learning through patients.

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    From Silos to Systems: Leveraging Visualization Tools to Map and Navigate the Complex Terrain of Health Professions Education
    ( 2023) Griffin, Erin ; Russell, Irina ; Germain, Lauren J. ; Brar, Kiran ; Dabzadeh, Zahra ; Youm, Julie

    Rationale:
    Health Professions Education (HPE) programs are diverse and founded with varied goals, missions, and pedagogical approaches. Navigation of this complex system requires an understanding of the components and connections that form HPE programs. Educators need shared maps that match this system to facilitate communication, progress, and efficiency.
    Systems maps are useful for describing shared mental models and delineating educational processes and goals; they are particularly effective for revealing unproductive tendencies toward siloing. In ‘The Seven Silos of Accountability,’ Joshua Brown presents a model of accountability silos in higher education that is applicable to HPE. The seven silos are assessment, accreditation, institutional research, institutional effectiveness, program evaluation, educational measurement, and higher education public policy. Specialized stakeholders may lack understanding of this broad network, leaving leadership in the difficult position of ‘pulling it all together’ with limited backup and support.
    One approach for enhancing integration, communication, and efficiency across silos is visualizing components of systems as a mechanism for identifying and solving system-level challenges. These visualizations result in a process map that reflects the terrain of an organization called an Organigraph. Organigraphs are practical tools that can be used to orient those new to HPE, facilitate systems-level improvements, and identify opportunities to streamline effort and innovation.
    In this panel, members of four institutions will present an emerging collaborative effort to support HPE programs. We have designed an organigraph of the common organizational silos in UME as well as a user-sourced, interactive visualization of organizational silos to aid in orientation to HPE programs.

    Learning Objectives: 61 words
    At the end of this session, participants will be able to:
    Identify three advantages of visualizing an organizational process map of the Health Professions education.
    Describe three examples of how a systems approach can address silo-driven challenges in the academic program environment.
    Demonstrate how systems visualization tools can be used to map accreditation needs across silos.
    Discuss pain points of silos in a Health Professions education context and reflect on systems-based solutions.

    Session Methods and Format: 109 words
    Introduction and definition of 1) Silos in medical education, and 2) Organigraphs, followed by a presentation of current silos in UME, including examples of use cases from multiple institutions. (25 minutes)
    Interactive reflection on silos in HPE: Structured large group discussion. (15 minutes)
    Presentation of 1) an Organigraph that maps the silos and shows how they interact in the functional landscape of UME, 2) an interactive dashboard on these silos, and 3) how this visualization can be sourced by stakeholders. (25 minutes)
    Interactive reflection on Organigraphs and visualization of silos in HPE: Structured large group discussion. (15 minutes)
    Concluding remarks and Q&A session with the audience. (10 minutes)

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    Anatomy of a Story: Reframing Resilience through Long-Lasting Communication
    ( 2023) Nguyen, Clara Do Tran

    Any personal story can become its own form of impactful long-lasting communication, with proper dissection. Knowing the anatomy of a story builds lasting impact from within–sharing personal stories in professional spaces at all levels of medical education is crucial to making the field more inclusive and diverse. It is not only empowering for the presenter, it begins to break down the institutional barriers and systemic issues that leave 28.8% of resident physicians (Mata, 2015) and 27.2% of medical students (Rotenstein, 2016) worldwide with depression or depressive symptoms. Physician burnout must be urgently tackled from several angles: one being storytelling as a vehicle to highlight meaningful ideas and lessons of personal triumph, social justice, and resilience.

    Participants will receive a step-by-step guide to dissecting their own experiences, such that they can identify one important idea they feel is beneficial for others to learn through storytelling.

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    Self-Paced Polling Increases Medical Student Engagement in Recorded Lectures and Improves Examination Performance
    ( 2023) Rhee, Sung W. ; Vuk, Jasna ; Anders, Michael

    Research Statement/Research Question
    Do self-paced polling questions in recorded lectures increase preclinical medical students' engagement and academic performance?

    Background and relevance of the study
    Engaging medical students in the curriculum may promote a deep approach to learning. However, class attendance is often low, and many students prefer recorded lectures. The shift to more online classes presents further challenges for student engagement. Self-paced polling with recorded lectures could increase student engagement in online education as well as address some students’ preference for recorded lectures.

    Design and Methods
    For second-year medical students, 148 audience response questions were given in three days. Participation in live or self-paced polling was incentivized with course points. With self-paced polling, students answered at their own pace while watching recorded lectures. Students who participated actively in all three days were subdivided into the Live group (2-3 days with live polling) and Self-paced (0-1 day with live polling) and compared to the Inactive group. Performance of the three groups was compared on seven examinations. Students also voluntarily answered: “How did the self-paced polling affect your experience with recorded lectures?”

    Results
    127/165 (77.0%) students used self-paced polling. 46 students were Inactive. 60/119 active students primarily used self-paced, and 59 used live polling. The Self-paced group performed significantly better than the Inactive group only on the fourth examination after incentivized, self-paced polling was made available. 115/127 (90.6%) students made positive comments about self-paced polling, while 12 (9.4%) were negative. In the positive comments, students expressed their emotional (n=59), behavioral (n=34), or cognitive (n=39) engagement.

    Conclusions
    Self-paced polling questions in recorded lectures enhanced students' emotional, behavioral, and/or cognitive engagement with course material and improved examination performance.

    Significance
    Medical educators can use self-paced polling to enhance student engagement and academic performance. Future studies should replicate and extend findings, with a focus on the impact of self-polling on deep and strategic approaches to learning and long-term retention.