Pacific Science Volume 18, Number 1, 1964

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Chromosome Homology in the Ceratobium, Phalaenanthe, and Latourea Sections of the Genus Dendrobium
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Kamemoto, H. ; Shindo, K. ; Kosaki, K.
    The Dendrobium genus comprises over 1,000 species of epiphytic orchids distributed over a vast triangular area connecting Indi a, New Zealand, and Japan, and including most of the tropical and subtropical land areas between 60 and 180 east longitude. This large genus has been subdivided into numerous sections on the basis of morphological characteristics (Holttum, 1957). Members of the Ceratobium, Phalaenanthe, and Latourea sections are distributed in New Guinea and surrounding areas. Both Ceratobium and Latourea are represented by at least 30 species each, while Phalaenanthe includes a relatively few species. Several species in these sections have been widely cultivated and extensively hybridized to produce the improved and popular horticultural varieties of today.
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    The Correct Name for the Hawaiian Gossypium
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Wilbur, Robert L.
    For almost a century the endemic Hawaiian Gossypium has been known as G. tomentosum. This species has received much attention especially in recent years since it has been thought by some to form together with the two American cultivated cottons, G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L., a small section of closely related species with a similar distinctive origin. The section is unique within the genus in that its three related species, as interpreted by Hutchinson, Silow, and Stephens (1947), are alloretraplaids reputedly having derived one genome from the diploid American complex and another from the group to which the Asiatic and African cultivated cottons belong. Naturally species with apparently as bizarre an origin as these three have been frequently discussed in the cytological, genetical, and phytogeographical literature. As a result the name G. tomentosum has become very well known indeed for the Hawaiian plant. Unfortunately for the sake of stability, this application of the name
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    Contributions to the Knowledge of the Alpheid Shrimp of the Pacific Ocean, IX. Collections from the Phoenix and Line Islands
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Banner, Albert H. ; Banner, Dora M.
    This paper initiates a series of three studies in the continuing series on the alpheids from the central Pacific that are based primarily upon collections made under the auspices of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. In 1954 the senior author received a travel grant from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum and Yale University that permitted him to collect alpheids from wide areas in the central Pacific. The grant was made as part of the tri-institution program (TRIPP) of those two institutions and the University of Hawaii for the increase of scientific knowledge of the Pacific.
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    Bathymetric Distribution of Chaetognaths
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Alvarino, Angeles
    The present report on the vertical distribution of the Chaerognatha is based on a study of the collections of plankton made by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography expeditions in the Pacific (Fig. 1) and Indian oceans. Therefore, all the data included and discussed in this paper have been obtained by the author from studies and analysis of thousands of plankton samples from those oceans; and, when other sources of information are used in the discussion, the name and date of the corresponding authority and publication are given. The samples studied here that cover the Pacific and Indian oceans were taken at 140 m depth (oblique hauls), and at other various depths: 270,300, 363,600, 700 or 868 m (closing nets or vertical tows), down to 3000 m deep (mid-water trawls). The results obtained from these expeditions and from the material examined while studying the seasonal distribution of chaetognaths in the California waters, and also from previous work in the Atlantic, has made it possible to group the species of this phylum into several categories based on their distribution in depth.
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    Morphogenesis of Tedania gurjanovae Koltun (Porifera)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Bakus, Gerald J.
    During the course of a study of the marine sponges of the San Juan Archipelago, Washington, the discovery of several specimens of Tedania gurjanovae Koltun (Koltun, 1958 :65 , fig. 20) was of special interest because of the opportunity provided to observe its larval metamorphosis. This species had been known previously only from the eastern part of the Tatar Strait, off Sakhalin, USSR, at depths of 60 to 100 m (Koltun, 1958, 1959) . The present specimens (No. 30, 58, 90, 112, lot 163) were dredged in depths of 73 to 198 m in President Channel and San Juan Channel, San Juan Archipelago, Washington, and now reside in this writer's personal collection. An account of the morphology, larval metamorphosis, ecology, and taxonomy of the Washington population is given here.
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    Further Notes on the Identification and Biology of Echeneid Fishes
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Strasburg, Donald W.
    Attempts to identify several small echeneid fishes revealed that some of the more useful adult characters are not present in the young. Specifically, disk length, pectoral fin rigidity, body and fin morphology, and scale size and number are features which change with growth. Certain meristic characters were found to be constant over the 14 to 640-mm length range considered, and were usable in identifying small specimens. This paper presents a key to the Echeneidae with further observations on their biology.
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    Notes on the Life History of Two Californian Pomacentrids: Garibaldis, Hypsypops rubicunda (Girard), and Blacksmiths, Chromis punctipinnis (Cooper)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Limbaugh, Conrad
    The range, life history, food, competitors, predators, and ectoparasitic cleaners of Hypsypops rubicunda and Chromis punctipinnis are considered. Both species exhibit elaborate prespawning and spawning behavior. Nest preparation and nest behavior of the garibaldis are discussed in detail.
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    Some Pearlfishes from Guam, with Notes on Their Ecology
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Smith, C.L.
    From October, 1960, to July, 1961, 230 specimens of pearlfishes were collected on the fringing reefs of Guam. Four forms are represented and their distinguishing features are discussed. These specimens were taken from four species of holothurians and from the armless starfish, Culcita nouaguineae. Carapus mourlani was found only in Culcita; the other three occurred in two or more hosts. Thelenota ananas, Stichopus chloronotus, and an unidentified Holothuria contained only one species each, but Holothuria argus served as host of three pearlfish species. Sea cucumbers that produce adhesive threads as well as those that do not were utilized as hosts. Over 100 specimens of Holothuria atra were opened without finding a single pearlfish. Although this species has been reported as a host, it is probably not a preferred one. The most common species is Carapus homei, its usual host is Stichopus chloronotus. Tenuis larvae were collected from October through February. Repeated collections in the same area of Tumon Bay indicated that there was a decrease in the infestation rate after February. C. homei probably spawns in late summer, and the larvae assume the inquiline habit during the fall and winter months. Small samples from other parts of the island indicate that infestation rates vary with the locality. It is unusual to find more than one pearlfish in a single host, and the fish are not confined to the respiratory trees but are often found free in the body cavity. During the period when the tenuis larvae are present C. homei often feeds on the larvae of its own species, perhaps indicating that there is competition for hosts. This could account for the infrequent occurrence of more than one fish per host. Carapus homei also eats shrimp. Encheliophis gracilis, however, seems to feed on the gonads of its host. C. homei leaves the host at night and on four occasions was seen some distance from any probable hosts. The form called Carapus mourlani is structurally very similar to C. bomei but differs in having superficial melanophores. Since mourlani occurs only in Culcita and homei never does, there is a possibility that the observed differences are due to the effects of the host. Until this can be demonstrated experimentally it seems desirable to retain the name mourlani.
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    Observations of the Reproductive Cycles and Ecology of the Common Brachyura and Crablike Anomura of Puget Sound, Washington
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01) Knudsen, Jens W.
    It was the aim of this research project to study the growth and reproductive cycles of the Puget Sound Brachyura and Anomura as they are related to oceanographic and environmental conditions. These goals were designed to answer many of the basic questions concerning the local crab population and to serve as a basis for more restricted physiological experimentation dealing with behavior and reproductive cycles. A continuous survey of the intertidal and near-shore crab fauna was made to determine the seasonal change in gonad development, egg production, the time of fertilization, deposition of eggs, and other related-features. As many species of Anomura and Brachyura as could be accommodated were captured and maintained in running sea water aquaria for additional studies of food and feeding habits, ecdysis, copulation, and other phenomena linked to maturity and reproduction. The aim to survey all Brachyura and Anomura in the southern Puget Sound area had to be modified to exclude the hermit crabs .due to the extreme amount of time required for field observation of this group. It has been our goal to correlate reproductive activity of all of these species with annual environmental changes so far as possible and to determine trigger mechanisms involved in the reproductive cycles. Considerable experimentation was attempted along these lines as is discussed herein.
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    18:1 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-01)
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