Pacific Science Volume 36, Number 4, 1982

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    36: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982)
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    36:4 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10)
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    Monograph of Trematolobelia (Lobeliaceae). Hawaiian Plant Studies107
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) St. John, Harold
    The genus Trematolobelia (Lobeliaceae) is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. It resembles Lobelia, except for its peculiar dehiscence. On ripening the capsules shed their epidermis and soft mesocarp, exposing the outer bony endocarp which is pierced by numerous holes. On the exposed ridges or cliff faces, the slender stem is whipped back and forth by the wind. Centrifugal force ejects the seeds through the holes of the endocarp. This monograph presents nine species and three varieties of the genus, five on Hawaii, two on Oahu and Molokai, and one each on Kauai, Lanai, east Maui, and west Maui. Eight of them are new or are new placements.
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    Effects of Differential Fish Grazing on the Community Structure of an Intertidal Reef Flat at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) Miller, Alan C.
    Miller AC.1982. Effects of differential fish grazing on the community structure of an intertidal reef flat at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Pac Sci 36(4): 467-482. The high and middle intertidal zones of the northeastern portion ("barren") of the limestone bench on the windward side of Enewetak Island, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, have a significantly higher number of herbivorous fishes grazing at high tide than the same intertidal zones of the reef flat 300 m to the southwest ("algae-covered"). This portion of the reef flat in the barren, heavily grazed area has a significantly lower coverage by erect, macroscopic algae and a lower algal biomass than the same portion of the reef flat in the algae-covered area. The removal of part of the limestone substratum by the grazing fishes as they feed and the reduced coverage by erect, macroscopic algae result in a lower topographic relief in the barren area than found in the algaecovered area. The heavily grazed area has a significantly lower number of mobile epifaunal invertebrate species and individuals per square meter than the lightly grazed area. Differences in infauna (sipunculans, polychaete worms, and tanaid crustaceans) are not so clear. When portions of the barren area were excluded from fish grazing activity for three months, the substratum under the exclosures had 100%coverage by an algal mat; the density of mobile invertebrate epifauna was an order of magnitude higher than in quadrats outside the exclosures. Although the high and middle intertidal community is subjected to apparently severe physical stresses (desiccation, insolation, wave shock, ultraviolet radiation, and osmotic stress from evaporation in the tide pools and rainfall), it appears to be principally structured by the grazing activities of herbivorous fishes. The high level of grazing in the barren area results in coverage by filamentous blue-green algae and a diatom-bacterial film, which may be a nutritionally more important food source to the fishes than the coralline algae in the algae-covered area.
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    Caridean Shrimps of the Gulf of California. I. New Records, with Some Remarks on Amphiamerican Distribution
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) Rios, Ruben ; Carvacho, Alberto
    Six caridean shrimps are reported from the Gulf of California, Mexico, for the first time: Ambidexter symmetricus, Latreutes parvulus, and Salmoneus ortmanni were not previously reported in the eastern Pacific; northern range extensions are given for Thor manningi, Ambidexter panamensis, and Automate dolichognatha. A brief discussion on amphiamerican species is included with a comparison of brachyuran crabs and caridean shrimps.
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    Review of Hawaiian Pinnidae and Revalidation of Pinna exquisita Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938 (Bivalvia: Mytiloida)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) Rosewater, Joseph
    Hawaiian Pinnidae consist of five species: Pinna muricata Linne, 1758, P. bicolor Gmelin, 1791, Atrina vexillum (Born, 1778), Streptopinna saccata (Linne, 1758), and the recently rediscovered Pinna exquisita Dall, Bartsch, and Rehder, 1938. Differentiating characters are discussed, and P. exquisita is redescribed.
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    Responses of Five Holothurian Species to Attacks by a Predatory Gastropod, Tonna perdix
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) Kropp, Roy K.
    In the laboratory Tonna perdix attacked and often engulfed individuals of five holothurian species. Two species, Stichopus chloronotus and S. horrens, sometimes escaped attacks by shedding a piece of body wall and bounding away from the predator. Bounding employed an exaggerated, direct arching peristalsis and was much faster than ordinary crawling. The general response of each of the other three species, Holothuria atra, H. cinerascens, and H. hilla, was a shortening of the body lengthwise accompanied by a swelling of the body into a spherelike shape. This response was not usually effective as an escape maneuver. Only H. hilla eviscerated during attacks and this was a direct result of penetration of the visceral cavity by the tonnid radula.
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    The Hydrozoan Cladonema in California: A Possible Introduction from East Asia
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) Rees, John T.
    A hydrozoan of the genus Cladonema, new to the American west coast, is described from specimens taken from a display tank on the Berkeley campus of the University of California. Observations of its life history revealed it to be synonymous with Cladonema uchidai Hirai, 1958, known and described from northern Japan, although its distribution is probably much wider and includes coastal China and the USSR. The species is presumed to be present in San Francisco Bay, a point of introduction for many exotic species, although it is not yet known from the field.
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    Status and Distribution of Ants in the Crater District of Haleakala National Park
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1982-10) Fellers, Joan H. ; Fellers, Gary M.
    The Crater District of Haleakala National Park was surveyed for ants. Three species were found. Argentine ants (Iridomyrmex humilis) occurred only within I km of the park headquarters and the nearby research facility. Hypoponera opaciceps was found in small numbers throughout the Crater District. Cardiocondyla emeryi was present only at the head of Kaupo Gap. Possible impacts of these ant species on the endemic, flightless insects of the park are discussed.
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