Pacific Science, Volume 63, Number 3, 2009

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    Currently Known and Reported Discomycetes (Ascomycota) of Hawai‘i.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2009-07) Wong, George J. ; Korf, Richard P.
    A species list of Discomycetes that occur in Hawai‘i has been compiled that includes all previously reported species in the literature. Comments are provided for reports if there are changes in nomenclature, author citation, or for taxonomic revisions based on reexamination of collections. Fifteen taxa, new to Hawai‘i, are reported. The list of accepted taxa includes a total of 47 species, one including two subspecies. Three previously reported species were misidentified and apparently do not occur in Hawai‘i. Three species formerly reported as Discomycetes are now excluded as Dothideomycetes. The relatively small number of species of Discomycetes recorded from Hawai‘i is probably due to lack of an exhaustive effort to survey this group of Fungi. Although some species are recorded as growing on endemic or indigenous host plants, species of Discomycetes were not designated as endemic or indigenous due to insufficient knowledge of species distribution and the wide range of variations in host preferences.
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    Review of Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Hawai‘i and Adjacent Seamounts. Part 2: Genera Paracalyptrophora Kinoshita, 1908; Candidella Bayer, 1954; and Calyptrophora Gray, 1866.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2009-07) Cairns, Stephen D.
    Nine deep-water primnoid octocoral species are described from Hawaiian waters, four of them as new species, bringing the total number of octocoral species known from Hawai‘i to 94. Candidella gigantea is reported for the first time subsequent to its original description from Fiji in 1889. To place the two new species of Calyptrophora in context, all 16 species in the genus are keyed and analyzed in a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. Although the analysis did not support the species complexes and species groups established by Bayer, it did suggest two distinct clades based on characters such as the opercular cowl, inclination of the polyps, and cross section and sculpture of the basal scale spines.
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    The Soils of Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, Kiribati, Central Pacific: New Information and Comparison with Previous Studies.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2009-07) Morrison, R.J. ; Woodroffe, C.D.
    Kiritimati, the largest land area atoll in the world, is undergoing rapid population increase, and, given the isolation of the island, local food production will have to be expanded to support the residents. Two soils investigations were completed in the 1960s, but no additional information on the soil resources of the island has been produced since that time. In this study, 15 soil profiles were described and analyzed. Where possible, comparison has been made with previous work, and discussion of the soil-forming factors is presented. Results confirm that soils are weakly developed (Entisols) with relatively low organic matter contents and low water-retention capacity. These properties are expected from the age of the parent materials and the relatively dry climate of the island. Total elemental analyses show that the soils contain very low concentrations of potassium and important trace elements (iron, manganese, copper, and zinc), which will limit any plant production. Classification of the soils identified eight soil families, mainly separated on the basis of content of larger coarse fragments and soil moisture regime, including the influence of groundwater. Comparison with previous studies showed that although different nomenclature and classification systems were used, similar soil patterns were observed, and the soils of Kiritimati are relatively unique in the Pacific islands.
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    Ambrose B. Growth and Distribution of the Macroalgae Gracilaria salicornia and G. parvispora (Rhodophyta) Established from Aquaculture Introductions at Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2009-07) Nelson, Stephen G. ; Glenn, Edward P. ; Moore, David ; Ambrose, Brendan
    Gracilaria salicornia and G. parvispora were introduced to the south reef of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, in the past 15–20 yr for aquaculture development. Both species have naturalized on the reef. Gracilaria salicornia is now considered an invasive species on O‘ahu due to its tendency to grow in dense beds that produce undesirable windrows of thalli on the beach. There is also concern that it reduces biodiversity and degrades habitats of reefs. We surveyed the south coast of Moloka‘i, where both species were introduced, and measured biomass density, growth rates, and thallus nutrient contents of G. salicornia in established beds. Both species are found in the silt-laden, nearshore zone of the reef within 50 m of shore. Gracilaria salicornia grows in dense beds containing 475 g dry weight m_2 of biomass, but growth rates are low, 0.03%–1.28% day_1. Tissue nitrogen levels are low, suggesting that these populations are nitrogen limited. Nevertheless, populations of G. salicornia persist and grow slowly on the reef, whereas those of G. parvsipora are only found in areas of local nitrogen enrichment from anthropogenic sources. Currently, G. salicornia does not appear to be negatively affecting the reef ecology on Moloka‘i, because it is confined to the disturbed, nearshore zone. However, its ability to grow slowly and persist under low-nitrogen conditions allows it to form dense beds and suggests that it will eventually spread farther along the coast.
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    Short-Range Movements of Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Nesting to Foraging Areas within the Hawaiian Islands.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2009-07) Parker, Denise M. ; Balazs, George H. ; King, Cheryl S. ; Katahira, Larry ; Gilmartin, William
    Hawksbill sea turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata, reside around the main Hawaiian Islands but are not common. Flipper-tag recoveries and satellite tracking of hawksbills worldwide have shown variable distances in post-nesting travel, with migrations between nesting beaches and foraging areas ranging from 35 to 2,425 km. Nine hawksbill turtles were tracked within the Hawaiian Islands using satellite telemetry. Turtles traveled distances ranging from 90 to 345 km and took between 5 to 18 days to complete the transit from nesting to foraging areas. Results of this study suggest that movements of Hawaiian hawksbills are relatively short-ranged, and surveys of their foraging areas should be conducted to assess status of the habitat to enhance conservation and management of these areas.