Pacific Science Volume 23, Number 1, 1969

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Notes. On the Existence of a Coral Reef Regenerative Sediment
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Di Salvo, Louis H.
    Calcareous Detrial Sediment has been recovered from the interiors of semiconsolidated ramose non-living coral formations of several coral reef areas. While collecting invertebrates from Indian Ocean coral reefs during participation in the International Indian Ocean Expedition (1963), I was impressed by the general presence of a muddy sediment which was released into the water when the dead coral substratum was broken up. The presence of such a sediment seemed unusual in view of the normal clarity of the typically unproductive reef waters and the absence of land-derived sediments. At that time I began hypothesizing about the sediment dynamics and decomposer function in coral reef microenvironments.
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    Notes. The Nomenclatural and Taxonomic Status of the Hawaiian Shrub Scaevola gaudichaudii H. & A.
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Gillett, George W.
    In his treatment of the genus Scaevola in Hawaii, Skottsberg (1927) assigned the name Scaevola menziesiana Chamisso to a species that occurs on the six major Hawaiian islands, but which he apparently had not seen in nature. He cited many specimens from earlier collectors but none of his own. In reference to flower color he commented: "The corolla is said to be yellow. Fresh material of this interesting form is very desirable."
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    Notes. Aggregating in the Echinoid Evechinus chloroticus
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Dix, Trevor G.
    Evechinus chlorolicus, a large regular urchin endemic to New Zealand, shows marked clumping within populations, observable throughout the year in the field (Fig. 1) and also demonstrated by quadrat sampling (variance ratio test for 60, m2 samples along a transect gave P<0.005).
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    Aluminous-Ferruginous Oxide Mineral Nodules in Tropical Soils
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Sherman, G.D. ; Ikawa, Haruyoshi ; Matsusaka, Toshito
    Secondary oxide mineral nodules occur in the ferruginous, ferruginous bauxitic, and bauxitic soils of the Hawaiian Islands. The concentration of these oxide nodule aggregates which are larger than 2 mm ranges from 5 per cent in some ferruginous soils to as high as 85 per cent in the ferruginous bauxitic soils of the Halii family. The nodules are formed by the process of induration in which the hydrated amorphous hydroxide and oxides are dehydrated to their crystalline oxide form. The resulting indurated oxide nodule becomes an independent unit in the soil system with corresponding loss of effective surface even though the nodule may contain friable clay material in its interior. The typical nodule produced in the ferruginous bauxitic soil has a dense iron oxide layer (hematite and maghemite) and, in the interior, soft to hard, lighter-colored material which contains gibbsite.
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    Revision of the Genus Pandanus Stickman, Part 33 Further Accounts of Australian Species, and a Key to the Section Microstigma
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) St. John, Harold
    Species of Pandanus were discovered in eastern and northern Australia at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Subsequent collections have revealed that the genus extends from the northern part of Western Australia, across the Northern Territory, over much of Queensland, and along the east coast down into New South Wales. Including the ones here described, there are 65 known species of Pandanus in Australia
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    Observations on Hawaiian Species of Wikstroemia (Angiospermae: Thymelaeaceae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Gupta, Samta ; Gillett, G.W.
    Wikstroemia (Thymelaeaceae) is a genus of tropical and subtropical shrubs or trees, widely distributed in southeast Asia to Malaysia, northeast Australia, and the Pacific islands (Ryukyu, Marianas, Caroline, Hawaiian, Society, Marquesas, Tonga, Fiji, Norfolk, and New Caledonia). The Hawaiian species are known by the name Akia or Akea.
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    Quantitative Relationships between Fleas and Rodents in a Hawaiian Cane Field
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Haas, Glenn E.
    Relative numbers of Xenopsylla vexabilis Jordan on Rattus exultans (Peale) and Mus musculus L. and in their nests were determined monthly in a field of maturing sugar cane at Kukuihaele, island of Hawaii, January 1962-March 1963, in a preliminary study using nest boxes and live traps. Mean numbers of fleas in active rat nests were most closely correlated with mean numbers of fleas infesting rats when they were cage-trapped in the previous month. Mean numbers of fleas in active mouse nests were most closely correlated with mean numbers of mice that had been recorded per mouse nest found occupied in the previous month. Ratios of mean number of fleas on trapped rats to mean number of fleas in rat nests the following month averaged .20 when means increased and .30 when they decreased. When the total flea index was substituted for mean number of fleas in nests, ratios averaged .32 when fleas became more abundant and .36 when they decreased in numbers. Further study of fleas in rat nests is needed before predictions of flea abundance are routinely made from fleas counted on trapped rats.
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    A Comparative Study of Cheilostome Bryozoa at Yokosuka, Maizuru, and Sasebo, Japan
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Long, Edward R. ; Rucker, James B.
    The cheilostome Bryozoa fauna of 65 marine fouling panels exposed at Yokosuka, Maizuru, and Sasebo, Japan, in 1966 and 1967 was studied. Nineteen species were recorded, described and photographed. Based on faunal variations between the sites, a list of the principal species diagnostic of each was prepared. The panels at the Yokosuka site were characterized by large quantities of Watersipora subovoidea, Bugula neritina, and B. californica; the Maizuru site by Bugula neritina and Electra tenella; and the Sasebo site by Schizoporella unicornis and Celleporaria aperta. Faunal resemblance between the three stations on the basis of the recorded Bryozoa occurrence indicate Maizuru and Sasebo were most similar in Bryozoa composition and Sasebo and Yokosuka the least similar of the three sites.
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    Growth and Asexual Reproduction of the Starfish Nepanthia belcheri (Perrier)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Kenny, Ron
    Nepanthia belcheri (Perrier) attains a longest arm radius of 11 mm during the first growing period, 18 mm in the second, 23 mm in the third, and 27 mm in the fourth year. At radii of approximately 15 mm and 22 mm, asexual reproduction by fission can occur. Fission takes place during the active growth period of the year. The resulting individuals develop new arms resulting in a typical adult arm number of six or seven. The regenerating arms grow more rapidly than the old arms and cannot be differentiated at longest arm radii of 27 mm and 32 mm.
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    Behavior Associated with Pair Formation in the Banded Shrimp Stenopus hispidus (Olivier)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-01) Johnson, Victor R Jr.
    Field observations of Stenopus hispidus, an incidental cleaning shrimp, indicate that it is normally found on the reef in male-female pairs. Pairs were taken to the laboratory, where they were separated and the individuals subsequently repaired with equally sized "stranger" individuals of both the same and opposite sexes. Stranger shrimps of the same sex were highly aggressive and usually fought to the death. Among shrimp in aquaria there appeared to be no submissive or appeasement behavior. Stranger shrimps of the opposite sex tended to show initial fighting, followed by courtship and the formation of a breeding pair. Experiments were done to determine the major factors involved in mate recognition and hence pair formation. Pairs of shrimp allowed only chemical contact prior to being placed together showed quantitatively more fighting and more courtship than pairs allowed no sensory contact. Pairs of shrimp allowed only visual contact prior to being placed together showed quantitatively less courtship and equal fighting than pairs allowed no sensory contact. The supplement of controlled amounts of tactile contact to vision and olfaction resulted in quantitatively less fighting than occurred in control situations. Transfer to new surroundings seemed to increase the over-all level of aggression. The establishment of pairs and the behavior to other species of shrimps indicate that Stenopus is capable of species as well as individual recognition.
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