Pacific Science Volume 24, Number 3, 1970

Permanent URI for this collection

Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Item
    Materials for a Monograph of Freycinetia Gaud. (Pandanaceae) XIII A New Species from Ternate Island, Moluccas
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Stone, Benjamin C.
    Among the rich collections of Pandanaceae in the herb aria of Bogor (BO) and Leiden (L) are numerous specimens of Freycinetia collected in Ternate by V. M. A. Beguin. The greater part of these represent a species which had been given a new name in manuscript by C. A. Backer, but which he evidently never published; this name was based on the name of the island Ternate. Recently (Stone, 1970) I have described this as a new species, closely related to Freycinetia insignis Blume. Not all the specimens collected by Beguin are of this species, however, and the several mentioned here appear to represent a different species, not very close to F. insignis (which pertains to Sect. Blumeella), but rather to F. arborea Gaud . and its nearest relatives, which together form Sect. Freycinetia. In this paper the name Freycinetia leptostachya is proposed for th is interesting new endemic of Ternate.
  • Item
    Some Shoot and Cone Characteristics of Taiwan Red Pine
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Lanner, Ronald M. ; Hinkle, E.H.
    Taiwan red pine (Pinus taiwanensis Hayata) is endemic to the island of Taiwan, or Formosa (Li, 1963). It is one of the so-called uninodal pines - that is, its winter bud elongates to form an unbranched axis bearing lateral long shoot buds only near the distal end. However, it is remarkably prone to lammas growth or summer shoots (premature elongation of a newly formed dormant bud) and to several other anomalous forms of behavior. Some of these strongly affect tree form; others are economically unimportant but serve to illustrate further the morphological plasticity within the genus Pinus. The observations reported here were made in early March 1969, in natural stands, plantations, nurseries, and a seed orchard.
  • Item
    Some Implications of Precocious Flowering in Collospermum
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Moore, Lucy B.
    In heteroblastic development the juvenile and adult phases of a plant have the same genotype but the phenotypes are different, and Cook (1968, p. 97), noting that such phenotypic plasticity has undoubtedly led to a large number of "paper species," finds it rather shocking that so little information on phenotypic modification is. presented in formal taxonomic work. In the case here described, in the Pacific genus Collospermum (Liliaceae), a single plant can, during its lifetime, display contrasts comparable to some that characterize species or sections in the closely related genus Astelia.
  • Item
    Lichens from the Southern Alps, New Zealand: Records from Phipps Peak, The Two Thumbs, and the Tasman Valley
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Fineran, B.A. ; Dodge, C.W.
    The taxonomy, ecology, and regional distribution of lichens in New Zealand are imperfectly known (Galloway, 1966, 1968a, 1968b; Martin, 1966, 1968). In surveying the scattered literature, Galloway (1966) found that very little work had been done on alpine lichens. In his account he lists 150 species collected between about 2,600 and 6,060 feet from three sites in the Humboldt mountains, Fiordland. Earlier, J. Scott Thomson is known to have collected lichens from peaks in Otago and elsewhere in the South Island (see Zahlbruckner, 1941). Philipson and Brownlie (1958) have also recorded several species from mountains in the environs of Cass, Canterbury. Undoubtedly other collections have been made from alpine regions by local and visiting collectors, but few records have been published.
  • Item
    Successional Trends in the Coastal and Lowland Forest of Mauna Loa and Kilauea Volcanoes, Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Atkinson, IAE
    Three trends in forest succession are described from the coastal and lowland lava flows (<1,000 feet) of Mauna Loa and Kilauea in Hawaii. All begin on bare rock in a region of high rainfall (75 to 150 inches). One trend is in coastal forest and involves the replacement of Metrosideros polymorpha vegetation by Pandanus tectorius forest. The other trends occur inland and give rise to Metro-, sideros polymorpha and Metrosideros polymorpha/Diospyros ferrea forests with in 400 years. No consistent differences in successional trends were observed between pahoehoe and aa flows. Seasonal distribution of rainfall was considered to be important in differentiating the Metrosideros/Diospyros succession, while exposure to wind-carried salt may differentiate the Pandanus succession . There is need to protect representative areas of these forests for future study.
  • Item
    The Natural History of Haliclona ecbasis de Laubenfels, a Siliceous Sponge of California
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Fell, Paul E.
    Little information concerning the haliclonids of the Pacific Coast of the United States is presently available. De Laubenfels (1933) described briefly several haliclonids of California, but gave no account of their reproduction. During a study of oogenesis and embryonic development in Haliclona ecbasis de Laubenfels (Fell, 1969), information relating to the habitat, morphology, and breeding seasons of this sponge was also accumulated. This material is the subject of the present paper.
  • Item
    Paradiscogaster eniwetokensis n. sp. (Fellodistomidae: Trematoda) from Eniwetok, Marshall Islands
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Martin, W.E. ; Hammerich, Brian
    Paradiscogaster eniwetohensis n. sp. is described. It was found in the intestines of seven of nine specimens of the fish Chaetodon strigallgulus (Gmelin) collected at Eniwetok, Marshall Islands.
  • Item
    A New Argentinid Fish from Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Cohen, Daniel M.
    The argentinid fish described in this paper was collected by Mr. Paul Struhsaker of the University of Hawaii during the course of his investigations on the biology of Hawaiian demersal fish and shrimp populations. The species is referred to Glossanodon, a genus with six described Recent species from the tropical Atlantic, Mediterranean, western Indian Ocean, and Japan (Cohen, 1958; Cohen and Atsaides, 1969). It is also represented in the fossil record (jerzmanska, 1967).
  • Item
    The Biology of the Marquesan Sardine, Sardinella marquesensis
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Nakamura, Eugene L. ; Wilson, Robert C.
    Data and samples obtained in the Marquesas Islands from 1954 to 1960 form the basis of this report. Various morphological traits of the Marquesan sardine, Sardinella marquesensis, are described, and measures of their variation are given . These sardines were found mostly in bays with clear to slightly turbid and clear-green to brownish-green water and with substrate of sand, rock, coral rubble, or a combination of these. The composition of their stomach contents was very similar to that of plankton obtained in sardine habitats. Ten of the 35 species of fish taken with sardines in the seine are probable predators of the latter. Sardine behavior in the field, in captivity, and as tuna bait is noted. Parasites included hemiurid trematodes, camallanid nematodes, and an ergasilid copepod. Attainment of sexual maturity is estimated at a standard length of 84 mm. Spawning is believed to occur throughout the year. Between 1,000 and 8,000 ova are deposited at a single spawning. The sex ratio favored males. The abundance of Marquesan sardines appears to be inadequate to sustain commercial live-bait tuna vessels like those operating from California ports.
  • Item
    Toxin Secretion and Tail Autotomy by Irritated Oxynoe panamensis (Opisthobranchiata; Sacoglossa)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1970-07) Lewin, Ralph A.
    The green sacoglossan gastropod Oxynoe panamensis occurs in mangrove swamps on the coasts of Baja Californi a, Mexico, apparently feeding exclusively on the green siphonaceous alga Caulerpa sertularioides . When irritated, it secretes an astringent, milky mucus, which contains a toxin lethal to fish. Continued molestation may induce autotomy of the tail.
Copyright by University of Hawai’i Press. All rights reserved.