Occasional Papers

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 25
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    Acquisition of the English Dative Construction by the Japanese
    ( 1992) Yoshinaga, Naoko ; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language.
    This study investigates the acquisition of the English dative constructions by Japanese speakers. The Thematic Core Theory (TCT) holds that the double object dative construction is subject to a possession constraint, a morphophonological constraint, and a narrow semantic constraint. Second language acquisition theory, based on the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis (SLA-TCT) predicts that Japanese speakers will succeed in acquiring the possession constraint but not the narrow semantic constraint. In a test of the possession and morphophonological constraints, 64 native English speakers (NSs) and 66 native speakers of Japanese (JPNs) were asked to rate the acceptability of dative constructions with novel verbs. A second experiment, NSs = 85, JPNs = 85) tested the nanow semantic constraint using both novel and real verbs. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The results supported the TCT and SLA-TCT. This suggests that universal grammar may not be available to adult learners oxcept through their native language.
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    Form Explanation in Modification of Listening Input in L2 Vocabulary Learning
    ( 1993) Toya, Mitsuyo ; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language.
    The effectiveness of vocabulary explanation as modifications of listening input - explicit (EE) and implicit (IE) - were investigated in contrast to unmodified (baseline, BL) condition. One hundred and nine university students from Japan listened to two texts, which included different vocabulary elaborations for 12 items. Students listened three times to each text. After each listening, they indicatec the meanings of the items. Four weeks later, a delayed posttest was administered. Positive effects of multiple listenings were found in vocabulary learning from listening input. As hypothesized, the EE condition resulted in significant superiority over the other two on the immediate posttests. However, IE was not significantly better than the BL. The findings suggested that the IE mostly remained unnoticed during the listening. On the delayed posttest, the score of EE dropped and there was no significant difference among the three conditions, though all conditions resulted in a significant increase from the pretest.
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    Agreement and Disagreement: A Study of Speech Acts in Discourse and ESL/EFL Materials
    ( 1985) Pearson, Eloise ; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language.
    The purpose was to formulate a description of the speech act agreement/disagreement and the rules of use under which it occurs in native speaker conversation. This was done by surreptitiously recording natural conversation, transcribing it and examining it for agreement/disagreement. It was found that it occurred only as a response related to a prior initiation move and it occurred on a scale of politeness from the most polite forms of agreement to the least polite forms of disagreement. The description was compared to two ESL/EFL textbooks to determine the degree to which the presentation matched that of native speaker use. The result was that the textbooks presented formulaic expressions which occurred infrequently in conversations among native speakers.
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    Compliments and Gender
    ( 1994) Miles, Peggy ; Kellerman, Eric ; Bley-Vroman, Robert ; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language.
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    The Effects of Negotiated Interactioni and Promodified input on Second Langauge Comprehension and Retention
    ( 1989) Loschky, Lester C. ; University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language.
    This experiment tests hypotheses that premodified input and negotiated interaction facilitate comprehension and SLA (Krashen, 1980; Long, 1981) with Japanese as a foreign language. 41 beginning learners at the University of Hawaii had three listening tasks treatment sessions with native speakers in a pretest/posttest design. Treatment groups were 1) baseline input; 2) premodified input; 3) negotiated interaction. The tasks contained new vocabulary items and two locative structures, and were both learning treatments and on-line comprehension measures. Pre- and post tests included two vocabulary recognition tests and a sentence verification test. The hypothesis that negotiated interaction facilitates comprehension was supported (p< .05), but that for premodified input was not. No main effect for treatment was found for posttest gains in lexis and morphosyntax, though significant gains (p< .05) were found overall. The study thus supports the importance of negotiated interaction for on-line comprehension; however, task-focus on form-meaning relationships may have caused the posstest gains.