Mixed, Augmented, and Virtual Reality: Co-designed Services and Applications

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    Agency and Body Ownership in Immersive Virtual Reality Environments: A Laboratory Study
    ( 2020-01-07) Freude, Henrik ; Ressing, Caroline ; Müller, Marius ; Niehaves, Bjoern ; Knop, Michael
    Virtual reality (VR) technologies such as head-mounted displays are gaining increasing attention since the Oculus Rift development kit entered the market in 2016. VR is assumed to offer great potential for different purposes such as entertainment, gaming, education, or healthcare. Briefly summarized, VR provides an enclosed virtual environment in which users can become immersed, can move and look freely at 360-degree in any direction, and they can interact, manipulate, or create virtual objects with their entire body. With regard to these properties and the characteristic of immersion (a user’s state of deep involvement with an IT) we examine how immersion can be enhanced by the theoretical constructs of agency and body ownership in a VR space. Therefore, we conduct a laboratory study to enhance the perception of being in voluntary control of actions (agency) and the sense of the virtual body as one’s own one (body ownership) with 69 participants.
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    Stakeholder Strategy and Design Alignment Framework for Design Science Research – A Study in the Context of VR-Aided Marketing and Sales
    ( 2020-01-07) Holopainen, Jani ; Mattila, Osmo ; Pöyry, Essi ; Parvinen, Petri ; Tuunanen, Tuure
    This study introduces a framework to align various perceptions and objectives that different stakeholders have at the beginning of a Design Science Research (DSR) process and consolidate them into stakeholders’ strategies and theory-ingrained design artifacts. We coin this framework as Stakeholder Strategy and Design Alignment (SSDA). As an application area, we concentrate on a Virtual Reality (VR) application designed for marketing and sales purposes. The empirical testing of the framework shows that the marketing and sales potential of the application are, indeed, perceived very differently among three stakeholder groups: company representatives, developers and customers. In addition to the introduction of a new DSR framework, the study sheds light to the applicability of VR technologies for marketing and sales use.
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    Lose Yourself in VR: Exploring the Effects of Virtual Reality on Individuals’ Immersion
    ( 2020-01-07) Winkler, Nane ; Roethke, Konstantin ; Siegfried, Nils ; Benlian, Alexander
    Virtual reality (VR) technology generates an interactive virtual environment (VE) creating unique users’ experiences. A central part of VR experience is being immersed into a VE. Immersion factors, such as technological and perceptual features, are described in detail in non-immersive VR settings. However, advancements in VR technology, such as head-mounted displays with high resolution and precise motion tracking systems, that improve interactivity within the VE are not yet adequately considered. We conducted twelve semi-structured interviews immediately after respondents played highly immersive games using state-of-the-art VR equipment to identify novel immersion factors in this setting. The findings yield eleven immersion factors across three categories: (1) physical and physiological aspects, (2) cognitive and affective aspects, (3) social interaction and shared experience. Within these categories factors named “shared experience” and “translating actions from physical to virtual reality” were found as novel immersion factors in the VR context.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Mixed, Augmented, and Virtual Reality: Co-designed Services and Applications
    ( 2020-01-07) Pöyry, Essi ; Mattila, Osmo ; Hamari, Juho ; Holopainen, Jani