Volume 51(2) - 2019: Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Minutes, membership,
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-30) Matsunaga, Janis
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    In Memoriam: Robert Grove Hollingsworth (1957–2019)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-30) Pallipparambil, Godshen ; Suiter, Karl ; Aristizábal, Luis ; Armstrong, Jack ; Hollingsworth, Joseph ; Johnson, Melissa ; Manoukis, Nicholas ; Follett, Peter
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    Wafers in Saddle Bags: A Novel Dispensing System for Male Lures Used to Detect Invasive Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-31) Shelly, Todd ; Kurashima, Rick ; Fezza, Thomas ; Cook, Peter ; Cook, Dylan
    Detection of the agricultural pests Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) relies heavily on traps baited with male-specific attractants. For B. dorsalis, traps are baited with liquid (6 ml) methyl eugenol (ME), while polymeric plugs containing trimedlure (TML; 2 g) are used in traps targeting C. capitata. In both cases, the attractant volatilizes rapidly, and lures are changed out every 6 weeks to insure high trap attractancy. Lures having greater longevity would be beneficial, because they would lengthen the trap servicing interval and thus reduce both supply and labor costs. Here, we tested the effectiveness of a saddle bag dispenser that (i) held two solid wafers impregnated with male lure, thus eliminating handling of liquid methyl eugenol (a potential carcinogen), (ii) was easy to place in traps, and (iii) allowed a high loading of male lure in trap (total loading of 6 g per trap for each lure). Field experiments, each lasting 12–14 weeks, were conducted on Hawaii island and Oahu, Hawaii, that compared captures of B. dorsalis and C. capitata males in traps baited in the standard manner versus traps baited with saddle bag dispensers. Traps baited with ME saddle bags weathered up to 12 or 14 weeks generally captured similar numbers of B. dorsalis males as traps baited with fresh ME liquid and significantly more males than traps baited with weathered ME liquid. Similar results were obtained for C. capitata: traps baited with TML saddle bags weathered up to 12 or 14 weeks captured similar numbers of C. capitata males as traps baited with fresh TML plugs and significantly more males than traps baited with weathered TML plugs.
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    New Country Records and Annotated Checklist of the Dacine Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini) of Nepal
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-31) Leblanc, Luc ; Bhandari, Bishnu P. ; Aryal, Lok Nath ; Bista, Sanjaya
    Preliminary surveys for Dacine fruit flies were carried out in May 2015 and June 2017, with male lure (cue-lure, methyl eugenol, zingerone) traps maintained at 55 sites, (110–1,780 m elevation range), comprised mostly of Nepal Agricultural Research Council research stations. Twenty species were collected, including 11 new country occurrence and 2 new male lure association records. The most common species were fruit pests Bactrocera dorsalis (60.4% of all captures) and B. zonata (15.2%), and cucurbit pests Zeugodacus tau (9.5%) and Z. cucurbitae (8.7%). We present an annotated checklist of the 26 species now known to occur in Nepal, including 5 fruit and 6 cucurbit pests.
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    Response of Invasive Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Lamiinae) to Known Cerambycid Aggregation-Sex Pheromones in the Puna District of Hawaii Island
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-31) Collignon, R. Maxwell ; Siderhurst, Matthew S. ; Millar, Jocelyn G. ; Cha, Dong H.
    The Queensland longhorn borer (QLB; Acalolepta aesthetica [Olliff 1890]; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Monochamini) and plumeria long- horn borer (PLB; Lagocheirus obsoletus [Thomson 1778] = Lagocheirus undatus [Voet 1778]; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Acanthocini) are invasive longhorn beetle species that have become established on the island of Hawaii. Both QLB and PLB are polyphagous. Known hosts of QLB include cacao, citrus, kukui, and breadfruit in Hawaii, and QLB are known to attack live, healthy trees. Currently the beetle occurs in the Puna district of the island, but its range is expanding. PLB is a pest of plumeria and other ornamental plants throughout the state of Hawaii and elsewhere. As a first step towards developing a monitoring tool for these invasive beetles, we tested four known aggregation-sex pheromones of cerambycids in this subfamily—monochamol, fuscumol acetate, fuscumol, and geranylacetone—that have proven effective for attracting more than 30 lamiine species in different areas of the world. When tested in panel traps, these compounds individually and in a blend attracted 9 QLB total, which was not significantly different than the 5 QLB captured in solvent control traps. In contrast, traps baited with one of the tested compounds, fuscumol acetate, captured significantly more PLB than solvent blank control traps. We discuss future research directions for developing attractants using chemical ecology approaches to monitor QLB and PLB.
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    A New State Record Involving Nesolathrus (Coleoptera: Mycetophagidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-31) Samuelson, G. Allan ; Matsunaga, Janis N.
    The genus Nesolathrus (Mycetophagidae) is reported as a new record for the state of Hawaii, however, the species remains undetermined, as it differs from the unique species on which the genus is based. Big Island records include specimens reared from ohia twigs, Metrosideros polymorpha, from trees killed by Ceratocystis infections (Rapid Ohia Death).
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    Recovery of Sweetpotato Vine Borer, Omphisa anastomosalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in Sweetpotato Fields in Hawaii Through Field Collections and Detection Trapping
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-31) McQuate, Grant T. ; Sylva, Charmaine D.
    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, has been cultivated in Hawaii since at least 1778, with production increasing in recent years to the point where it was the top volume-producing vegetable crop in Hawaii in 2017. Sweet- potato production in Hawaii, though, is subject to several major insect pests that can adversely affect the quality and quantity of the crop. One such pest is the sweetpotato vine borer, Omphisa anastomosalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). A binary sex pheromone, recently identified through research with sweetpotato vine borer populations in Vietnam, has been shown to be comparably attractive in sweetpotato vine borer populations in Hawaii. Herein, research results are reported from tests where this improved sweetpotato vine borer sex attractant is used to assess the effect of trap type, trap height and trap spatial location on catch of male sweetpotato vine borer adults. The results presented here indicate that delta traps baited with the binary sex pheromone are good tools for population detection, with five times or more moth recovery and higher percentage detection relative to wing or Heliothis traps. Traps should be placed between 0.5 to 0.75 m above the sweetpotato foliage for best adult male moth recovery. Although moths are present throughout the sweetpotato field, as well as in near-border areas, trap catch may be more reliable towards the edges of the sweetpotato field. Also presented herein is some background on the biology of the sweetpotato vine borer that may be helpful for other researchers who seek to develop improved control of this insect pest.
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    Seasonal Abundance of Economically Important Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Bangladesh, in Relation to Abiotic Factors and Host Plants
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2019-12-31) Hossain, M. Aftab ; Leblanc, Luc ; Momen, Mahfuza ; Bari, M. Abdul ; Khan, Shakil Ahmed
    Fruit fly monitoring traps baited with male lures (cue lure, methyl eugenol, zingerone) were maintained for two years (Nov 2016–Oct 2018) at ten sites (reduced to three on year two), in village-style subsistence agriculture envi- ronments, at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment campus, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 15 species and 135,034 flies were collected, dominated by polyphagous fruit pest Bactrocera dorsalis (58.0% of all trapped flies), cu- curbit pests Zeugodacus cucurbitae (23.6%) and Z. tau (13.5%), and non-pest B. rubigina (3.6%). Three other pest species, collected in much smaller numbers, were polyphagous fruit pests B. zonata and B. correcta and cucurbit pest Dacus longicornis. Data was used to document the seasonal abundance of the above- mentioned species, in relation to host fruit availability and abiotic factors. Seasonal abundance of B. dorsalis, with peaks during wet summer months, was positively correlated with rainfall (r=0.70), temperature (r=0.66) and host availability (r=0.72). Seasonal trends in captures of B. zonata and B. rubigina were similar to those of B. dorsalis. Captures of Z. cucurbitae peaked in March 2017, early in the rainy season, and May 2018, in the middle of the rainy summer season, with no clear correlation with rainfall, humidity, or host availability. Captures of the two other cucurbit pests were inversely related to rainfall, with abundance peaks during the dry winter months. Data on seasonal abundance of these species will be utilized in formulating an area-wide pest management strategy in the agro-ecological system under consideration.