Pacific Science Volume 38, Number 1, 1984

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    38:1 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-01)
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    Stripping of Acacia koa Bark by Rats on Hawaii and Maui
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-01) Scowcroft, Paul G. ; Sakai, Howard F.
    Koa (Acacia koa) is the most valuable native timber species in Hawaii. Bark stripping of young trees by rats, a common but unstudied phenomenon, may affect survival, growth, and quality of koa. Up to 54% of the trees sampled in 4- to 6-year-old stands in the Laupahoehoe and Waiakea areas on Hawaii were wounded by rats; only 5% of trees sampled in a l-year-old stand on Borge Ridge, Maui, were wounded. Wounds were generally long and narrow. Complete girdling was not observed, and direct mortality seemed low. However, indirect effects of damage-deformation of stems, infection by pathogens, and premature death-require further study. Because only young trees seem susceptible to bark stripping, rodent control may be desirable during the first 5 years of koa stand growth.
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    Changes in Structure of Coral Reef Fish Communities by Destruction of Hermatypic Corals: Observational and Experimental Views
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-01) Sano, Mitsuhiko ; Shimizu, Makoto ; Nose, Yukio
    Population outbursts of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, have drastically altered communities in many coral reef areas of the Indo-west Pacific since the late 1960s. To understand the pattern of changes in fish communities on damaged coral colonies, direct observations and field experiments were carried out in inshore waters at Minatogawa, Okinawa Island (26°16' N, 127°42' E), in 1979 and 1980. From experiments on the effects of coral death and on the effects of decreased structural complexity of coral branches on fish communities using five colonies of staghorn coral, Acropora sp., we were able to predict the following changes in fish communities resulting from the destruction of living corals by Acanthaster. Coral polyp feeders completely disappear from dead coral colonies due to absence of their food; and the numbers of resident species and individuals decrease due to the reduction in living space or shelter when the structural complexity of dead coral colonies is decreased by bio- and physical erosion. Consequently, fish species diversity also decreases. These predicted changes are consonant with those directly observed on nine natural dead staghorn coral colonies.
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    Old and Unreported Collections of Alpheid Shrimp from the Zoologisches Museum, Berlin, Principally from Melanesia
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-01) Banner, Albert H. ; Banner, Dora M.
    Previously unstudied collections of 70 species of alpheid shrimp held by the Zoologisches Museum (East Berlin) are reported upon. Except for four species from the west coast of the Americas, all specimens were from the Indo-Pacific faunal realm, and principally came from the area of the Pacific south of the equator and west of the International Date Line known as Melanesia (exclusive of the Fiji Archipelago), with 46 species from this area. Of these 46, only II species had been previously reported in this region. All of the German specimens were collected before 1914, but we have supplemented the records with six additional collections from Melanesia made in the last two decades. No new species or subspecies are described; one species, Alpheus japonicus Miers, 1879, heretofore unfigured, is shown in drawings from the type specimens in the British Museum (Natural History), and one species, Synalpheus tridens (Borradaile, as Alpheinus tridens) 1899, is placed in synonymy to Synalpheus stimpsonii (De Man) 1888.
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