Mixed, Augmented and Virtual Reality: Co-designed Services and Applications

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    Getting Healthy by Catching Them All: A Study on the Relationship Between Player Orientations and Perceived Health Benefits in an Augmented Reality Game
    ( 2019-01-08) Koivisto, Jonna ; Malik, Aqdas ; Gurkan, Bahadir ; Hamari, Juho
    In recent years, location-based augmented reality games such as Pokémon Go have become increasingly popular. These games not only afford a novel gaming experience, but also have the potential to alter how players view their physical realities and alter the dynamics of traditional game play from its sedentary nature towards a more physical one. In this paper we investigate what kinds of players (achievement, immersion or social interaction -oriented) are more likely to derive health benefits from playing augmented reality games. We employ online survey data gathered among players of Pokémon Go (N=1190). The results show that playing location-based augmented reality games has a positive association with perceived mental, physical and social health outcomes overall. The results also suggest that the way in which players approach the game and what kinds of aspects of the game they emphasize can have a differential dynamic on how the health benefits of the game manifest. Results show that social gaming orientation is positively associated with physical, mental and social health outcomes, whereas achievement and immersion orientations are associated with physical and mental health outcomes.
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    Let’s Get in Touch - Decision Making about Enterprise Architecture Using 3D Visualization in Augmented Reality
    ( 2019-01-08) Rehring, Kevin ; Greulich, Malte ; Bredenfeld, Laurenz ; Ahlemann, Frederik
    Making informed decisions about historically grown and often complex business and Information Technology (IT) landscapes can be particularly difficult. Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) addresses this issue by enabling stakeholders to base their decisions on relevant information about the organization’s current and future Enterprise Architectures (EAs). However, visualization of EA is often confronted with low usefulness perceptions. Informed by the cognitive fit theory (CFT), we argue that decision-makers benefit from interacting with EA visualizations using Augmented Reality (AR), because it enables a consistent task-related mental representation based on the natural use of decision-makers’ visual-spatial abilities. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate ARs suitability for EA-related decision-making. We follow the design science research (DSR) approach to develop and evaluate an AR head-mounted display (HMD) prototype, using the Microsoft HoloLens. Our results suggest that EA-related decision-making can profit from applying AR, but users find the handling of the HMD device cumbersome.
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    Is Virtual Reality the Future of Learning? A Critical Reflection
    ( 2019-01-08) Schwarze, Anna ; Kampling, Henrik ; Heger, Oliver ; Niehaves, Bjoern
    The year 2016 marks the so-called second wave of VR, which was initiated by the first consumer VR-HMD, Oculus Rift (development kit), entering the market. There are four practical advantages in the field of virtual reality learning: a shift from abstract to tangible settings, interactivity rather than passive observations, using desirable but practically infeasible methods, and breaking the bounds of reality. In contrast, current VR technologies also feature certain limitations. The most common negative factor is motion sickness, which distracts the user. We conducted a multiple case study and invited 41 people to participate in two different scenarios. One was a self-developed 360° video and the other was a self-developed interactive scenario. We investigate different barriers which hamper individual learning in VR and we point out that there is a potential for implicit learning in virtual reality.
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    Crossing the Uncanny Valley? Understanding Affinity, Trustworthiness, and Preference for More Realistic Virtual Humans in Immersive Environments
    ( 2019-01-08) seymour, michael ; Yuan, Lingyao ; Dennis, Alan ; Riemer, Kai
    Developers have long strived to create virtual avatars that are more realistic because they are believed to be preferred over less realistic avatars; however, an “Uncanny Valley” exists in which avatars that are almost but not quite realistic trigger aversion. We used a field study to investigate whether users had different affinity, trustworthiness, and preferences for avatars with two levels of realism, one photo-realistic and one a cartoon caricature. We collected survey data and conducted one-on-one interviews with SIGGRAPH conference attendees who watched a live interview carried out utilizing two avatars, either on a large screen 2D video display or via 3D VR headsets. 18 sessions were conducted over four days, with the same person animating the photo realistic avatar but with different individuals animating the caricature avatars. Participants rated the photo-realistic avatar more trustworthy, had more affinity for it, and preferred it as a virtual agent. Participants who observed the interview through VR headsets had even stronger affinity for the photo-realistic avatar and stronger preferences for it as a virtual agent. Interviews further surprisingly suggested that our ability to cross the Uncanny Valley may depend on who controls the avatar, a human or a virtual agent.
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    Designing Augmented Reality Applications for Personal Health Decision-Making
    ( 2019-01-08) Gutiérrez, Francisco ; Htun, Nyi Nyi ; Charleer, Sven ; De Croon, Robin ; Verbert, Katrien
    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that can assist with our daily decision-making tasks by presenting information that extends the physical world. However, little work has been done to understand the effect of the layout of AR interfaces on decision-making. In this paper, we present PHARA, an AR-based personal assistant that supports decision-making for healthier food products. In a controlled user study (n=28), we explored the use of four different AR layouts on two different devices: Microsoft HoloLens and smartphone. Using subjective and objective means, we measured their effects on decision-making tasks that occur when people hold food products in their hands. We found that pie and grid layouts perform better on the smartphone, whereas a stacked layout works better on the reduced field-of-view of the Microsoft HoloLens, potentially at the cost of some affordances such as time spent and actions.
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    Enabling Sociability When Using Virtual Reality Applications: A Design Science Research Approach
    ( 2019-01-08) Holopainen, Jani ; Mattila, Osmo ; Parvinen, Petri ; Pöyry, Essi ; Tuunanen, Tuure
    Immersive virtual reality applications aim at providing an all-encompassing spatial experience where a user can feel like being in another world or dimension. The systems are inherently designed for individual use as the devices disconnect the user from the physical environment. However, the applications are seldom used alone. Specifically, when used for sales and marketing, the user often needs help from other people but also benefits from social interaction as a part of the experience. Design research methodology is applied to three iterative development versions of a virtual-reality application. The focus of the evaluation of the artifacts is in the social use emphasizing three sociability factors: shared knowledge, mutual trust and influence. According to the findings, the users prefer personal social interaction as a part of the experience. Thus, the social aspect should be emphasized in the service design.
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