Volume 34 - May 2000 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    The Pseudoscorpionida of Hawaii Part I. Introduction and Chthonioidea
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Muchmore, William B.
    The history of our knowledge of pseudoscorpions in the Hawaiian Islands is traced briefly. The chthonioid pseudoscorpions already known to exist in the islands are reviewed and some additional records are reported. A new genus, Vulcanochthonius, is proposed, based on Tyrannochthonius howarthi Muchmore. Three new species are described: Tyrannochthonius oahuanus from Oahu, and Vulcanochthonius aa and V. pohakuloae from Hawaii Island. Chthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler) and Lechytia sakagamii Morikawa are reported for the first time and complete descriptions of the Hawaiian material are given.
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    Attractiveness of Methyl Eugenol–Baited Traps to Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): Effects of Dosage, Placement, and Color
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Howarth, Vanessa M.C. ; Howarth, Francis G.
    The attractiveness of methyl eugenol-baited traps to the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was tested under different conditions; i.e., trap placement, color, and methyl eugenol dosage. The mean number of flies caught in hanging traps, 1–2 m above the ground (255), was not significantly different from the mean number in uncovered leaf litter traps (264), but was significantly greater than the number of flies in the covered leaf litter traps (85). Hanging and leaf litter traps interfered with each other when placed 2–3 m apart, but not when they were over 10 m apart. The mean numbers of oriental fruit flies caught in traps baited with 0, 2, 10 and 20 drops of methyl eugenol were significantly different, the numbers of flies increasing with increasing dose. In color preference studies, the mean number of flies captured in the clear traps was significantly greater than the numbers caught in the yellow, red, blue, or green traps. These results indicate that males have a strong aversion to entering shaded or dark traps. Clear traps placed in exposed sites should improve trap efficiency in both control and monitoring programs.
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    Introductions for Biological Control in Hawaii, 1987–1996
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Culliney, Thomas W. ; Nagamine, Walter T.
    Introductions and liberations of natural enemies for the biological control of agricultural and forest pests in Hawaii are presented for the period 1987–1996. A total of 24 arthropod and 2 fungal species were released or re-released (augmentation) by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture for the control of 4 weeds (Clidemia hirta, Coccinia grandis, Passiflora mollissima, and Ulex europaeus) and 9 insect pests (Bemisia argentifolii, Brontispa chalybeipennis, Elasmopalpus lignosellus, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteropsylla cubana, Liriomyza spp., Nezara viridula, Plutella xylostella, and Sipha flava).
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    First Record of Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) and Natural Woodland Infestations of C. brevis (Walker) on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Scheffrahn, Rudolf H. ; Su, Nan-Yao ; Chase, James A. ; Mangold, John R. ; Grace, J Kenneth ; Yates, Julian R. III
    A termite survey of 18 coastal woodland localities on Oahu yielded five termite species including Neotermes connexus Snyder, Incisitermes immigrans (Snyder), Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light, and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The Indomalaysian and Australian species Cr. cynocephalus is reported in Hawaii for the first time and may have pest status there. The discovery of Cr. brevis colonies in a natural habitat is unprecedented and suggests that this population may either be related to prehistoric ancestors from the Neotropics or a new woodland biotype which evolved from colonies introduced by humans.
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    Key to Gonatocerus from the Hawaiian Islands, with Notes on the Species (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Huber, John T. ; Beardsley, John W.
    The 11 species of Gonatocerus (Mymaridae) in the Hawaiian Islands are reviewed and an identification key is given. The Hawaiian fauna consists so far entirely of introduced species, apparently all from the Nearctic region, though further intensive collecting may yield additional species. All of the species occur on one of the islands, Oahu, and at least seven occur on each of Hawaii, Kauai, and Molokai. Most of the species were first collected since the 1960s. Members of the sulphuripes and ater groups are identified to species but five species in the membraciphagus and litoralis groups cannot be named for certain, pending revisions of these groups for North America. The named species are: californicus Girault, capitatus Gahan, dolichocerus Ashmead, mexicanus Perkins, ornatus Gahan, and pygmaeus Girault.
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    Do Mediterranean Fruit Flies Lek? Does It Matter?
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Shelly, Todd E.
    Saul and McCombs (1995) recently argued that existing data do not support the accepted notion that the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), exhibits lek behavior. In particular, these authors claimed that 1) the mating system of C. capitata is resource-based and 2) C. capitata males are not spatially aggregated. Here, I review field observations that are consistent with lek behavior in this species and hence contrary to these claims. Also, contrary to the view of Saul and McCombs (1995), knowing that the Mediterranean fruit fly leks stimulates many questions of interest from both basic and applied viewpoints.
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    A Review of the Hawaiian Species of Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Triapitsyn, Serguei V. ; Beardsley, John W.
    A brief historical account of the use of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera:Mymaridae) in biological control in the Hawaiian Islands is given. Twelve species of Anagrus, ten of them named, are keyed and descriptive notes are provided. One new species, A. oahuensis S. Triapitsyn and Beardsley, is described and illustrated. A. osborni (Fullaway) and A. panicicolae Sahad are synonymized under A. optabilis (Perkins); A. cicadulinae Ferrière is synonymized under A. frequens Perkins. Lectotypes are designated for A. cicadulinae Ferrière, A. columbi Perkins, A. frequens Perkins, A. insularis Dozier, A. yawi Fullaway and Paranagrus optabilis Perkins.
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    Emoloana, a New Genus for the Endemic Grass-Feeding Hawaiian Delphacidae (Homoptera Fulgoroidea)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Asche, Manfred
    The endemic Hawaiian grass-feeding species of Delphacidae previously regarded as congeners of Kelisia Fieber are transferred to Emoloana n.gen. in the tribe Delphacini: E. emoloa (Muir) n. comb., E. eragrosticola (Muir) n. comb., E. swezeyi (Kirkaldy) n. comb., and E. sporobolicola (Kirkaldy) n. comb. with the subspecies E. sporobolicola immaculata (Muir) n. comb.; 2 new species are described: E. menehune n. sp. from Kauai, and E. pohakua n. sp. from Hawaii Island. The new genus is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and comprises 3 morphological groups: the E. emoloa-group with E. emoloa on Oahu, E. eragrosticola on Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii Island, and E. pohakua on Hawaii Island; the E. swezeyi-group with E. swezeyi on Oahu and E. menehune on Kauai; the E. sporobolicola s.l.-group distributed on all major Hawaiian Islands. The origin of Emoloana and relationships among species cannot be determined because of lack of knowledge about the morphology of potentially related taxa. A baseline for future genetic and biosystematic research on this group is discussed.
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    A New Genus of Fairyfly, Kikiki, from the Hawaiian Islands (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Huber, John T. ; Beardsley, John W.
    A new genus of Mymaridae, Kikiki Huber and Beardsley, is described from the Hawaiian Islands and characterized by the following diagnostic combination: body length at most about 300 µm; female antenna with four funicle and two claval segments; forewing venation about 0.7 times wing length; and tarsi apparently three–segmented, with a long pretarsus. The type species, Kikiki huna Huber (type locality: Mapulehu near Ililiopae Heiau, Molokai I.), is described from eight slide mounted females. Generic relationships of Kikiki are briefly discussed.
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    Imidachloprid as a Protectant for Endangered Plants Attacked by Sophonia rufofascia
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2000-05) Follett, Peter A. ; Empy-Campora, Cara ; Jones, Vincent P.
    An experiment was conducted to assess the efficacy of the systemic insecticide imidachloprid (Marathon® 1% granular) against the two-spotted leafhopper, Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh). A high (3.3 ml) and low (1.6 ml) rate of imidachloprod was applied to the endangered Hawaiian plant Munroidendron racemosum (Forbes) Sherff in 30.5 cm pots. Early nymphal stages of S. rufofascia were placed on plants at 5, 12, 25, 37, and 50 d after application and counted 24 h later. At the high rate, leafhopper mortality was >80% for more than 5 wk. Imidachloprid is potentially a valuable tool for pest management of rare and endangered species in botanical gardens and in the wild.