HIGP Faculty & Researcher Works

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Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
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    Deciphering the origin(s) of H and Cl in Apollo 15 quartz monzodiorites: Evidence for multiple processes and reservoirs
    ( 2023-10-01) Barrett et al.
    Abstract Apollo 15 quartz monzodiorites (QMDs) are reported to contain some of the most deuterium-depleted apatite found in lunar samples. In this study, apatite from six Apollo 15 QMDs, including three samples from 15405 not previously investigated, were analyzed for their H and Cl isotopes. Apatite in 15405 are extremely 2H (or D)-poor, with δD values ranging from −658 ± 53 to −378 ± 113‰, comparable to apatite data from related samples 15403 and 15404. In addition to new H isotope data, the first Cl-isotope data for lunar QMDs are presented. Apatite in 15405 and related samples are enriched in 37Cl with respect to Earth, with measured δ37Cl values ranging from +13 to +37‰. These values are within the reported δ37Cl range for KREEP-rich samples. The fact that the Cl isotopic composition of apatite in QMDs are similar to those in other lunar lithologies, but the H isotopic data are distinct and unique, provides possible further evidence for the existence of a D-poor reservoir in the lunar interior. Raman spectroscopy of the silica polymorph in sample 15405 reveals it to be a mixture of quartz and cristobalite. Based on available experimental data on the stability of various silica phases over a range of pressure and temperature regime, a deep-seated origin in the crust for QMDs may be possible which would support an endogenous origin of the H-Cl isotope systematics of the QMDs. The role of impact-induced transformation of silica phases and its contributing towards low D/H ratio in apatite, however, cannot be ruled out.
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    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion found in the Ivuna CI chondrite: Are CI chondrites a good proxy for the bulk composition of the solar system?
    ( 2023-10-04)
    Cosmochemists have relied on CI carbonaceous chondrites as proxies for chemical composition of the non-volatile elements in the solar system because these meteorites are fine-grained, chemically homogeneous, and have well-determined bulk compositions that agree with that of the solar photosphere, within uncertainties. Here we report the discovery of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in the Ivuna CI chondrite. CAIs are chemically highly fractionated compared to CI composition, consisting of refractory elements and having textures that either reflect condensation from nebular gas or melting in a nebular environment. The CAI we found is a compact type A CAI with typical 16O-rich oxygen. However, it shows no evidence of 26Al, which was present when most CAIs formed. Finding a CAI in a CI chondrite raises serious questions about whether CI chondrites are a reliable proxy for the bulk composition of the solar system. Too much CAI material would show up as mismatches between the CI composition and the composition of the solar photosphere. Although small amounts of refractory material have previously been identified in CI chondrites, this material is not abundant enough to significantly perturb the bulk compositions of CI chondrites. The agreement between the composition of the solar photosphere and CI chondrites allows no more than ~0.5 atom% of CAI-like material to have been added to CI chondrites. As the compositions of CI chondrites, carbonaceous asteroids, and the solar photosphere are better determined, we will be able to reduce the uncertainties in our estimates of the composition of the solar system.
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    Hydrogen fluence in Genesis collectors: Implications for acceleration of solar wind and for solar metallicity
    ( 2020-02-01) Huss, G. R., Koeman-Shields, E., Jurewicz, A J. G., Burnett, D. S., Nagashima, K., Ogliore, R. & Olinger, C. T.
    NASA's Genesis mission was flown to capture samples of the solar wind and return them to the Earth for measurement. The purpose of the mission was to determine the chemical and isotopic composition of the Sun with significantly better precision than known before. Abundance data are now available for noble gases, magnesium, sodium, calcium, potassium, aluminum, chromium, iron, and other elements. Here, we report abundance data for hydrogen in four solar wind regimes collected by the Genesis mission (bulk solar wind, interstream low-energy wind, coronal hole high-energy wind, and coronal mass ejections). The mission was not designed to collect hydrogen, and in order to measure it, we had to overcome a variety of technical problems, as described herein. The relative hydrogen fluences among the four regimes should be accurate to better than ±5–6%, and the absolute fluences should be accurate to ±10%. We use the data to investigate elemental fractionations due to the first ionization potential during acceleration of the solar wind. We also use our data, combined with regime data for neon and argon, to estimate the solar neon and argon abundances, elements that cannot be measured spectroscopically in the solar photosphere.
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    Multiple generations of grain aggregation in different environments preceded solar system body formation
    (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018-06-11) Ishii, Hope A. ; Bradley, John P. ; Bechtel, Hans A. ; Brownlee, Donald E. ; Bustillo, Karen C. ; Ciston, James ; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. ; Floss, Christine ; Joswiak, David J.
    The solar system formed from interstellar dust and gas in a molecular cloud. Astronomical observations show that typical interstellar dust consists of amorphous (a-) silicate and organic carbon. Bona fide physical samples for laboratory studies would yield unprecedented insight about solar system formation, but they were largely destroyed. The most likely repositories of surviving presolar dust are the least altered extraterrestrial materials, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with probable cometary origins. Cometary IDPs contain abundant submicron a-silicate grains called GEMS, believed to be carbon-free. Some have detectable isotopically anomalous a-silicate components from other stars, proving they are preserved dust inherited from the interstellar medium. However, it is debated whether the majority of GEMS predate the solar system or formed in the solar nebula by condensation of high-temperature (>1300K) gas. Here, we map IDP compositions with single nanometer-scale resolution and find that GEMS contain organic carbon. Mapping reveals two generations of grain aggregation, the key process in growth from dust grains to planetesimals, mediated by carbon. GEMS grains, some with a-silicate subgrains mantled by organic carbon, comprise the earliest generation of aggregates. These aggregates (and other grains) are encapsulated in lower density organic carbon matrix, indicating a second generation of aggregation. Since this organic carbon thermally decomposes above ~450K, GEMS cannot have accreted in the hot solar nebula and formed, instead, in the cold presolar molecular cloud and/or outer protoplanetary disk. We suggest that GEMS are consistent with surviving interstellar dust, condensed in situ, and cycled through multiple molecular clouds.
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    Supporting data CNO prior to corrections
    ( 2018-06-06) Ishii, Hope ; Bradley, John ; Bechtel, Hans ; Brownlee, Donald ; Bustillo, Karen ; Ciston, James ; Cuzzi, Jeffrey ; Floss, Christine ; Joswiak, David
    Table of data of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen elemental compositions prior to corrections. Supporting data for journal article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in June 2018, titled "Multiple generations of grain aggregation in different environments preceded solar system body formation".
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    The Indonesian seas and their role in the coupled ocean–climate system
    (Nature Geoscience, 2014-06-22) Sprintall, Janet ; Gordon, Arnold L. ; Koch-Larrouy, Ariane ; Lee, Tong ; Potemra, James T. ; Pujiana, Kandaga ; Wijffels, Susan E.
    The Indonesian seas represent the only pathway that connects different ocean basins in the tropics, and therefore play a pivotal role in the coupled ocean and climate system. Here, water flows from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean through a series of narrow straits. The throughflow is characterized by strong velocities at water depths of about 100 m, with more minor contributions from surface flow than previously thought. A synthesis of observational data and model simulations indicates that the temperature, salinity and velocity depth profiles of the Indonesian throughflow are determined by intense vertical mixing within the Indonesian seas. This mixing results in the net upwelling of thermocline water in the Indonesian seas, which in turn lowers sea surface temperatures in this region by about 0.5 °C, with implications for precipitation and air–sea heat flux. Moreover, the depth and velocity of the core of the Indonesian throughflow has varied with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole on interannual to decadal timescales. Specifically, the throughflow slows and shoals during El Niño events. Changes in the Indonesian throughflow alter surface and subsurface heat content and sea level in the Indian Ocean between 10 and 15° S. We conclude that inter-ocean exchange through the Indonesian seas serves as a feedback modulating the regional precipitation and wind patterns.
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    A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2013-11-14) Brown, P.G. ; Assink, J.D. ; Astiz, L. ; Blaauw, R. ; Boslough, M.B. ; Borovicka, J. ; Brachet, N. ; Brown, D. ; Campbell-Brown, M. ; Ceranna, L. ; Cooke, W. ; de Groot-Hedlin, C. ; Drob, D.P. ; Edwards, W. ; Evers, L.G. ; Garces, M. ; Gill, J. ; Hedlin, M. ; Kingery, A. ; Laske, G. ; Le Pichon, A. ; Mialle, P. ; Moser, D.E. ; Saffer, A. ; Silber, E. ; Smets, P. ; Spalding, R.E. ; Spurný, P. ; Tagliaferri, E. ; Uren, D. ; Weryk, R.J. ; Whitaker, R. ; Krzeminski, Z.
    Most large (over a kilometre in diameter) near-Earth asteroids are now known, but recognition that airbursts (or fireballs resulting from nuclear-weapon-sized detonations of meteoroids in the atmosphere) have the potential to do greater damage than previously thought has shifted an increasing portion of the residual impact risk (the risk of impact from an unknown object) to smaller objects. Above the threshold size of impactor at which the atmosphere absorbs sufficient energy to prevent a ground impact, most of the damage is thought to be caused by the airburst shock wave, but owing to lack of observations this is uncertain. Here we report an analysis of the damage from the airburst of an asteroid about 19 metres (17 to 20 metres) in diameter southeast of Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013, estimated to have an energy equivalent of approximately 500 (6100) kilotons of trinitrotoluene (TNT, where 1 kiloton ofTNT54.18531012 joules).Weshowthat a widely referenced technique of estimating airburst damage does not reproduce the observations, and that the mathematical relations based on the effects of nuclear weapons—almost always used with this technique—overestimate blast damage. This suggests that earlier damage estimates near the threshold impactor size are too high.Weperformed a global survey of airbursts of a kiloton ormore (including Chelyabinsk), and find that the number of impactors with diameters of tens of metres may be an order of magnitude higher than estimates based on other techniques. This suggests a non-equilibrium(if the population were in a long-term collisional steady state the size-frequency distribution would either follow a single power law or there must be a size-dependent bias in other surveys) in the near-Earth asteroid population for objects 10 to 50 metres in diameter, and shifts more of the residual impact risk to these sizes.