Human-Computer Interaction: Informing Design Utilizing Behavioral, Neurophysiological, and Design Science Methods

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    Interactive Experiences in Public Spaces: A Novel Floor Display System Based on Luminous Modular Units
    ( 2018-01-03) D. Camba, Jorge ; Feng, Jeff ; Kwon, EunSook
    We describe the design of an interactive concrete floor display for public spaces and discuss its implementation and areas of application. The primary purpose of our system is to provide new forms of collaborative interaction in long-term installations in both indoor and outdoor spaces. Our design is an expandable system of interconnected tiles, which control an array of RGB Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) based on user input. The LEDs are built into the tiles and arranged in a manner that simulates pixels on a computer screen, providing a natural visualization mechanism. Each tile acts as an independent node in a network, where motion sensors trigger specific actions and provide interactivity to the surface. A series of applications are illustrated, including promotional advertising and interactive games. The system was installed and evaluated on a university campus for four weeks where hundreds of visitors successfully interacted with the floor.
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    A Thumb Stroke-Based Virtual Keyboard for Sight-Free Text Entry on Touch-Screen Mobile Phones
    ( 2018-01-03) Lai, Jianwei ; Zhang, Dongsong ; Wang, Sen ; Yakut Kilic, Isil ; Zhou, Lina
    The use of QWERTY on most of the current mobile devices for text entry usually requires users’ full visual attention and both hands, which is not always possible due to situational or physical impairments of users. Prior research has shown that users prefer to hold and interact with a mobile device with a single hand when possible, which is challenging and poorly supported by current mobile devices. We propose a novel thumb-stroke based keyboard called ThumbStroke, which can support both sight-free and one-handed text entry on touch-screen mobile devices. Selecting a character for text entry via ThumbStroke completely relies on the directions of thumb movements at anywhere on a device screen. We evaluated ThumbStroke through a longitudinal lab experiment including 20 sessions with 13 participants. ThumbStroke shows advantages in typing accuracy and user perceptions in comparison to Escape and QWERTY and results in faster typing speed than QWERTY for sight-free text entry.
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    The Influence of Conversational Agents on Socially Desirable Responding
    ( 2018-01-03) Schuetzler, Ryan M. ; Giboney, Justin Scott ; Grimes, G. Mark ; Nunamaker, Jay F.
    Conversational agents (CAs) are becoming an increasingly common component in many information systems. The ubiquity of CAs in cell phones, entertainment systems, and messaging applications has led to a growing need to understand how design choices made when developing CAs influence user interactions. In this study, we explore the use case of CAs that gather potentially sensitive information from people-”for example, in a medical interview. Using a laboratory experiment, we examine the influence of CA responsiveness and embodiment on the answers people give in response to sensitive and non-sensitive questions. The results show that for sensitive questions, the responsiveness of the CA increased the social desirability of the responses given by participants.
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    Imaginary Versus Virtual Loci: Evaluating the Memorization Accuracy in a Virtual Memory Palace
    ( 2018-01-03) Huttner, Jan-Paul ; Pfeiffer, David ; Robra-Bissantz, Susanne
    The Method of Loci (MOL) is a mnemonic strategy to memorize declarative knowledge. In the late 90s researchers started to experimentally analyze the MOL by providing their participants a virtual world. This digital environment was meant to serve the users as a template for their personal memory palace. Past studies differed in central aspects of their experimental design. One difference is that earlier studies integrated the learning content in multiple and different ways. The design of the learning content is an essential aspect and should make a difference based on cognitive theories. This study analyzes if participants perform better with virtually presented learning content or if the MOL works better when users have to imagine the content. Results encourage future concepts of the virtual MOL to implement the learning content in the environment.
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    Robust User Identification Based on Facial Action Units Unaffected by Users' Emotions
    ( 2018-01-03) Buettner, Ricardo
    We report on promising results concerning the identification of a user just based on its facial action units. The related Random Forests classifier which analyzed facial action unit activity captured by an ordinary webcam achieved very good values for accuracy (97.24 percent) and specificity (99.92 percent). In combination with a PIN request the degree of specificity raised to over 99.999 percent. The proposed biometrical method is unaffected by a user's emotions, easy to use, cost efficient, non-invasive, and contact-free and can be used in human-machine interaction as well as in secure access control systems.
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    Visual Aesthetics of E-Commerce Websites: An Eye-Tracking Approach
    ( 2018-01-03) Pappas, Ilias ; Sharma, Kshitij ; Mikalef, Patrick ; Giannakos, Michail
    This study adopts four facets of visual aesthetics (i.e., simplicity, diversity, colorfulness, craftsmanship) to explain how they relate with users’ gaze patterns, based on how much they fixate on certain points, as well as how fast and how much distance their eyes cover. On a sample of 23 experienced users in online shopping, we collect eye-tracking data while looking at high, neutral, and low appealing websites, and then register their perceptions on visual aesthetics towards those websites. Findings show different patterns of gaze behavior related with users’ perceptions on visual aesthetics. Short fixations with high saccade show high simplicity, while high fixation variance and high backtrack shows high diversity. Short fixations with high backtrack show high colorfulness. Low saccade velocity with high skewness shows high craftsmanship. We contribute towards the need of automatizing the process of understanding users’ perceptions of visual aesthetics, as we might be able to predict the user behavior in real time in the future.
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    CLUE: A Usability Evaluation Checklist for Multimodal Video Game Field Studies with Children Who Are Blind
    ( 2018-01-03) Darin, Ticianne ; Andrade, Rossana ; Sánchez, Jaime
    Multimodal video games can enhance the cognitive skills of children who are blind by allowing interaction with scenarios that would be unfeasible in their everyday life. To assist the identification of relevant interface and interaction issues when children who are blind are playing multimodal video games, we propose a Checklist for Usability Evaluation of Multimodal Games for Children who are Blind (CLUE). CLUE was designed to assist researchers and practitioners in usability evaluation field studies, addressing multiple aspects of gameplay and multimodality, including audio, graphics, and haptics. Overall, initial evidence indicates that the use of CLUE during user observation helps to raise a greater number of relevant usability issues than other methods, such as interview and questionnaire. CLUE makes the analysis of recorded user interactions a less time- and effort-consuming process by guiding the identification of interaction patterns and usability issues.
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    Artifact Sampling: Using Multiple Information Technology Artifacts to Increase Research Rigor
    ( 2018-01-03) Lukyanenko, Roman ; Parsons, Jeffrey ; Samuel, Binny
    Researchers in many scientific disciplines routinely conceptualize information technologies (IT) as antecedents or outcomes in theoretical models. The ongoing theorizing of IT leads to a novel methodological challenge termed instantiation validity (IV). In this paper, we contribute to research on remediating IV challenges by proposing and advocating the methodological practice of artifact sampling, whereby multiple artifacts are sampled from the population of all possible artifacts (the instantiation space). Artifact sampling extends the practice of employing multiple research subjects or survey respondents, routinely used in social sciences, into the IT artifact design space. Artifact sampling is an important methodological practice that stands to increase the rigor of research dealing with software artifacts. As it is currently not being adequately undertaken in the aforementioned research, many studies may result in biased or unjustified conclusions.
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    The First 10 Years of NeuroIS: A Systematic Literature Review of NeuroIS Publications (2007 - 2017)
    ( 2018-01-03) Mamun, Md Rasel Al ; David, Alsius ; Mai, Bin ; Kim, Dan J. ; Parsons, Thomas D
    NeuroIS is an emerging and promising academic field that has attracted increasing attention. The year 2017 signifies the 10th year of existence of NeuroIS as a research field in information systems area. In this study, we conduct a systematic literature review of the NeuroIS academic research publications of last 10 years (2007-2017). As a result, we categorize the existent NeuroIS literature into 8 groups, explore the correlations among various NeuroIS concepts/ constructs, and demonstrate how the study enhances our understanding of the granulated inter-relationships between pairs of NeuroIS elements. The implications of the result to the NeuroIS research community are discussed.
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