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    The Impact of Meaningful Game Narratives on Attitudes towards Racial Outgroups
    ( 2021-01-05) Shaza, Munifa ; Yu, Valerie ; Alvarez, Katrina ; Chen, Vivian Hsueh Hua
    Serious games with interactive narratives have been studied for their potential to influence emotions, behaviors and attitudes concerning real-world people and issues. Past research suggests that the meaningfulness of a narrative is potentially determined by the level of consequence following choices within the narrative. These choices may be the key to improving the effectiveness of an interactive narrative for prosocial outcomes such as improving perceptions towards racial outgroup members. This study examined how consequential and inconsequential choices in meaningful game narratives influence prosocial outcomes towards racial outgroups, as well as the level of meaningfulness perceived by players. Participants in the pre-post experimental study played a newly developed serious game and generally showed improved perceptions towards racial others after gameplay. However, there were no significant differences with regards to prosocial outcomes and perceived meaningfulness of the game narrative between consequential and inconsequential choice conditions of the game.
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    Rankings or Absolute Feedback? Investigating Two Feedback Alternatives for Negotiation Agreements in a Gamified Electronic Negotiation Training
    ( 2021-01-05) Schmid, Andreas
    The use of game elements in non-game contexts has gained popularity in the education domain to increase students’ motivation and engagement. Additionally, these elements provide feedback on students’ performance. Rankings are often applied to display performance feedback relative to others despite their potential negative effects, for example due to increased pressure. In this experimental study, we compare two types of gamified electronic negotiation training, each including the game elements levels, badges, and experience points. As the reflection on the negotiation performance is a central activity for negotiation training, we test two feedback alternatives for the negotiation agreements. One group received relative feedback through rankings, and the other group received a non-game and absolute feedback called Pareto graph. Our findings show similar intrinsic motivation and negotiation outcomes, but higher engagement for participants using the Pareto graph. Practitioners and researchers are encouraged to consider non-game feedback elements in their gamification design.
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    Lost in translation: A study of (mis)conceptions, (mis)communication and concerns when implementing gamification in corporate (re)training
    ( 2021-01-05) Palmquist, Adam
    This exploratory study concerns companies in the manufacturing industry that consider implementing gamification in their online training to satisfy the accelerating demand for workforce upskilling. Through participation in different gamification design workshops with a gamification studio and its clients, this study aims to identify what topics are discussed and should be considered when designing a gamified solution for training in the manufacturing industry. The study raises the propositions that gamification needs 1) a more robust definition in business to business exchange; 2) a better explanation of how performance outweighs effort; 3) consideration of the senior users and/or the social norms that exist in the manufacturing industry.
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    In the Mood for Doing Good: The influence of positive and negative emotions in game narratives on prosocial tendencies
    ( 2021-01-05) Chua Xin Yi, Caris ; Yu, Valerie ; Chen, Vivian Hsueh Hua
    The interactive nature of video games provides a plethora of emotional experiences to its players through their in-game narratives. While video games traditionally provide hedonic entertainment, non- hedonic uses of video games have also been recently explored for possibilities of using video games to incite good. Despite the potential of emotions provided in video game narratives to influence human behavioral tendencies, few studies have studied or compared the effect of positive or negative emotional experiences on motivating prosocial behaviour. This study examined the impact of positive or negative emotions experienced in an in-game narrative on individuals' prosocial tendencies. Results showed that participants who had been exposed to positive emotions reported improved attitudes and increased empathy towards outgroup members. Given the immense potential for meaningful video games to inspire changes in human behavioral tendencies, further research should explore the capabilities of emotions in in-game narratives to tackle critical cultural and societal issues.
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    Individual Rank and Response: Survey-Based Evidence on the Effects of Rank-Based Performance Feedback
    ( 2021-01-05) Huschens, Martin ; Ernst, Claus-Peter ; Rothlauf, Franz
    Evidence suggests that rank-based performance feedback (RBPF) can influence workplace performance. Still, knowledge about the differential effects of RBPF on two central antecedents of employees’ performance — perceived pressure and individual goal-setting — is still sparse. We address these gaps by using a survey-based study and found that the effects of RBPF on individual goal-setting are positive for high, intermediate, and low performing individuals. However, these positive effects come with a price: Low performers who find themselves at the bottom of the ranking perceive their situation as more pressuring compared to a situation without ranking. Although these results point to a potential benefit, they also cast doubt on the implementation of rankings within the workplace.
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    Gamification of Sustainable Consumption: a systematic literature review
    ( 2021-01-05) Guillen, Georgina ; Hamari, Juho ; Quist, Jaco
    As awareness about the need to shift current individual consumption practices towards more sustainable ones grows, broader sets of methods are being sought to encourage sustainable lifestyles, gamification being one of the most notorious due to its application via apps and other technology-related solutions. Building upon an intention-impact approach, this review used practice-theory to analyze academic literature addressing gamification approaches to shift individual consumption practices into more sustainable ones.
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    Gamification in Nutrition Apps – Users’ Gamification Element Preferences: A Best-Worst-Scaling Approach
    ( 2021-01-05) Berger, Michelle ; Jung, Carolin
    An unhealthy diet has become a leading risk factor for many diseases. The use of gamification elements (GEs) in nutrition apps offers a promising approach to change the eating habit. But, the design of GEs is often insufficient, leading to low user retention. Hence, the consideration of the underlying context and the target users’ preferences is essential. By conducting a survey with 220 possible users following the best-worst-scaling method, we found that goals, performance graphs, progress bars, rewards, and levels were the most preferred GEs in nutrition context. Leaderboards, narratives, social interaction, and badges were less desired. On average, five elements are perceived as optimal by most survey participants. Compared to users’ preferences in education and physical activity contexts, similarities, but also differences, were found. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of contextual differences of GE preferences and provide starting points for further research on gamification.
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    Examining Game-based Approaches in Human Resources Recruitment and Selection: A Literature Review and Research Agenda
    ( 2021-01-05) Bina, Saman ; Mullins, Jeffrey ; Petter, Stacie
    Human resources departments have embraced the use of technology to incorporate game-based approaches (GBA) to encourage potential applicants to apply for open positions and to select employees among qualified candidates. We examine the academic literature on the use of serious games, game-inspired design, game-like simulations, gamification, and other GBA used to support recruitment and selection activities. Based on our review of 35 articles, we describe the state of research related to GBA for recruitment and selection, including theoretical foundations, targeted outcomes, and game design elements examined or discussed within this literature. Based on our systematic review of the literature, we identify opportunities for future research related to GBA in recruitment and selection of employees.
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    Do they Play as Intended? - Comparing Aggregated and Temporal Behavioral Analysis in a Persuasive Gamified System
    ( 2021-01-05) Loria, Enrica ; Rivera, Jessica ; Marconi, Annapaola
    Gamified systems nurture an ulterior goal set by their designers (e.g., a positive behavioral change). Behavioral profiling allows understanding whether users play as intended and reach such a goal. Analyzing in-game behaviors can also highlight unexpected interaction patterns or unengaged users. Current logging systems can track and store any in-game action. However, such high-dimensional data should be carefully processed to retain relevant knowledge while filtering unnecessary noise. Analysts can either aggregate data into a single data point per player or maintain temporal information. This study compares aggregated and temporal behavioral analysis conducted on a gamified system, promoting sustainable mobility (Play\&Go). Results show how, in Play\&Go, aggregated analysis conveys information on long-term winning strategies, whereas temporal analysis describes short-term strategies. Additionally, studying the temporal evolution of players' behaviors emphasizes a sharp division among engaged and unengaged users. We show how aggregated and temporal analysis hold a complementary view of players' experiences.
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    Are Gamification Projects Different? An Exploratory Study on Software Project Risks for Gamified Health Behavior Change Support Systems
    ( 2021-01-05) Warsinsky, Simon ; Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel ; Thiebes, Scott ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Gamification is increasingly utilized in information systems to afford positive experiences that are typically perceived from playing games. Despite potential benefits, gamification projects have shown to be prone for failure which may lead to severe harmful effects for its users. In traditional software development projects, project managers try to mitigate failure through project risk management. However, gamification projects bring with them several differences in comparison to traditional software projects and it is unclear how extant knowledge may be transferred. We address this issue by conducting ten semi-structured interviews with experts involved in the development of gamified health behavior change support systems. Our results indicate that gamification has substantial impacts on various risk factors. We contribute to gamification and project management literature as we are among the first who conceptualize gamification projects as special software development projects with different project risk factors.