Pacific Science Volume 43, Number 1, 1989

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    43:1 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1989-01)
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    The First New Zealand Insects Collected on Cook's Endeavour Voyage
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1989-01) Andrews, JRH ; Gibbs, G.W.
    The Banks collection of 40 insect species, described by J. C. Fabricius in 1775, is critically examined to explore the possible methods of collection and to document changes to the insect fauna and to the original collection localities since 1769. The assemblage of species is regarded as unusual. It includes insects that are large and colorful as well as those that are small and cryptic; some species that were probably common were overlooked, but others that are today rare were taken. It is concluded that the Cook naturalists caught about 15 species with a butterfly net, but that the majority (all Coleoptera) were discovered in conjunction with other biological specimens, especially plants. Possible reasons for the omission of wetas, stick insects, etc., are discussed. This early collection shows that marked changes in abundance may have occurred in some species since European colonization. One new record is revealed: The cicada Notopsalta sericea (Walker) was found to be among the Fabricius specimens from New Zealand, but its description evidently had been overlooked.
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    Recent Climate History of Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1989-01) Nullet, Dennis
    The recent energy and synoptic climate of Hawaii is examined in this article. The results indicate trends in the energy climate, increasing temperature and decreasing solar radiation, though no evidence is found of trends or cycles in the synoptic climatic elements, rainfall and sea level pressure.
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    Simulation of Organic Chemical Movement in Hawaii Soils with PRZM: 1. Preliminary Results for Ethylene Dibromide
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1989-01) Loague, Keith M. ; Green, Richard E. ; Liu, Clark C. ; Liang, Tony C.
    Leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater is an environmental issue of major concern in Hawaii. Fumigants used by the pineapple industry are a possible source of this contamination. In this paper we report the results of an initial evaluation of the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM) for highly structured Hawaiian soils. We use PRZM to predict the transport of the soil fumigant ethylene dibromide (EDB) for two pineapple fields and compare the simulated concentration profiles with field measurements. Although preliminary, our results suggest that PRZM may be useful in the future for pesticide screening and risk assessment in Hawaii. The work reported here is part of a larger ongoing study concerned with development and application of methodology for assessing potential groundwater contamination by pesticides.
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    Calcareous Organisms and Sediment Mineralogy on a Mid-Depth Bank in the Hawaiian Archipelago
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1989-01) Agegian, Catherine R. ; Mackenzie, Fred T.
    The dominant calcareous organisms on Penguin Bank, a middepth bank (40-100 m) off the southwestern tip of the island of Molokai, Hawaii, are red and green algae, benthic foraminifera, and bryozoans. The sediments on Penguin Bank are a mixed mineralogic assemblage of benthically derived magnesian calcite and aragonite. A low pelagic input of foraminifera and coccolithophorids to the sediments was indicated by the small percentage of low magnesian calcite found only in the smallest size fractions and the lack of recognizable particles of these organisms in these size fractions. The benthic community on Penguin Bank, composed ofcoralline algae, benthic foraminifera, and bryozoans, produces magnesian calcite with a range in magnesium content of about 6-16 mole % MgC03. Calcareous green algae (predominantly Halimeda) are the dominant producers of aragonite. Sediments on Penguin Bank are dominated by magnesian calcite particles in all size fractions (<45-3962 mm). The ratio of the percentage of high magnesian calcite (>5 mole %) to aragonite increases in the smaller size fractions and with increasing water depth from 40 to 93 m. The magnesium content of the sediments decreases within the same depth range. Mid-depth banks may be potential sources of highly chemically reactive carbonate particles to the open ocean. The magnitude of this input has not been quantitatively assessed but may be important in global biogeochemical cycles of calcium and carbon in the ocean reservoir.
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