Pacific Science Volume 37, Number 1, 1983

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    37:1 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01)
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    Manganiferous Soil Concretions from Hawaii: A Comment
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) McKenzie, R.M.
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    Parasites of Kalij Pheasants (Lophura leucomelana) on the Island of Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Lewin, Victor ; Mahrt, Jerome L.
    Kalij pheasants (Lophura leucomelana) were collected from the island of Hawaii from 21 March to 25 June 1981, and were examined for parasites . These introduced forest dwelling pheasants are sympatric with both endangered endemic birds and mosquitoes, which are known vectors of avian malaria. No blood parasites were found in any of the 44 Kalij pheasants examined. An eyeworm, Oxyspirura sp., was found in two birds . One pheasant was infested with a body louse Amyrsidea monostoecha, and a feather louse Lagopoecus colchicus was found on two birds. The latter represents a new host record
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    Batesian Mimicry between a Cardinalfish (Apogonidae) and a Venomous Scorpionfish (Scorpaenidae) from the Philippine Islands
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Seigel, Jeffrey A. ; Adamson, Thomas A.
    An apparent case of Batesian mimicry involving the cardinalfish Fowleria sp. and the venomous scorpionfish Scorpaenodes guamensis is described . Classical definitions of Batesian systems require that the mimic be less common than the model. The present data do not suggest a classical Batesian mimetic system. However, if the model is considered to be the generalized scorpaenid morph characteristic of S. guamensis and other Philippine scorpaenids, then the mimetic association between Fowleria sp. and S corpaenodes guamensis is a classical Batesian system.
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    The Status of Torquigener hypselogeneion (Bleeker) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) and Some Related Species, including a New Species from Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Hardy, Graham S.
    Torquigener .hypselogeneion (Bleeker) and T.florealis (Cope) are redescnbed, and a neotype IS proposed for the former. That species differs from T. florealis in having smaller eye diameter, shorter caudal peduncle length, usuall!, lower. fin ray counts, and different color pattern. Torquigener randalli n.sp. is descnbed .from six specimens from Oahu, Hawaii, differing from the similar T.jiorealis In shape of dorsal and anal fins, a usually lower dorsal and anal fin ray count, and in color pattern.
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    Synopsis of the Indo-Pacific Pipefish Genus Siokunichthys (Syngnathidae), with Description of S. nigrolineatus n. sp.
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Dawson, C.E.
    The urophorine (tail-pouch) pipefish genus Siokunichthys is rediagnosed; diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations, key, and additional information are provided for the five species recognized. The type-species, S. herrei Herald (Red Sea and western Pacific ) and S. southwelli (Duncker), from Sri Lanka and the Philippine Islands, have long slender snouts, but they differ in numbers of trunk ring s (respectively, 12-14 versus 8) and in other meristic and morphological features. Two species, S. bentuviai Clark (Red Sea, Gulf of Aden) and S. nigrolineatu s n.sp. (Moluccas and Philippines) have short snouts but differ in number of total rings (respectively, 61-65 versus 67-69), shape of the snout, and life coloration. The remaining species, S. breviceps Smith (Mozambique and western Pacific), is characterized by its intermediate snout length and by other proportional and meristic features. These marine fishes are small (to ca . 80 mm SL), some occur in surface waters (usually as subadults), and demersal adults are known to depth s of 20 m. Two species (S. bentuviai and S. nigrolineatus) are apparently commensal with corals.
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    Nematode-Induced Abdominal Distention in the Hawaiian Puffer Fish, Canthigaster jactator (Jenkins)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Deardorff, Thomas L. ; Stanton, Frank G.
    A heavy infection in the body cavity of two sharp-nosed puffer fish, Canthigaster jactator, by a nematode, Philometra sp. , is reported. The large number and size of the nematodes caused a conspicuous protrusion of the abdomen in both fish. Other infected specimens of C. jactator were observed in the water s of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.
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    Growth Characteristics of Intertidal Limpets in Relation to Temperature Trends
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Kenny, Ron
    Three species of the intertidal limpet genus Cellana are distributed along the east coast of Australia in a latitudinal sequence. Collections of limpets were made at eight localities spanning 27 degrees of latitude. Shell length measurements were analyzed to establish growth constants and these constants were related to environmental temperatures. The most southerly population showed a marked reduction in growth rate . Growth rates at the tropical and warm temperate locations form a sequence in which the growth constants (relative to temperature) of the tropical species change more markedly than do those of the temperate species.
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    The Influence of Diet on Local Distributions of Cypraea
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) Hayes, Therese
    The distribution of Cypraea in two habitat 'zones at Puako reef on the island of Hawaii was examined. Three species, Cypraea gaskoini, C. cicercula, and C. scurra, were found only in the reef face stud y site, and two species, C. poraria and C. caputserpentis, were found only in the reef top study site. Active individuals of all species were distributed nonrandomly with respect to substrate type. For reef face species the distribution of individuals appeared to be related to diet , with sponge the major dietary component of each of four reef face species. One cowrie was found to be prey specific for one species of sponge , and the distribution of C. gaskoini appeared to be dependent on the distribution of its prey sponge.
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    A New Carex (Cyperaceae) of the Section Stellulatae. Hawaiian Plant Studies 113
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-01) St. John, Harold
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