Pacific Science Volume 34, Number 1, 1980

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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    A New Sciaphila (Triuridaceae) from the Palau Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Fosberg, F.R. ; Sachet, Marie-Helene
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    Infrageneric Relationships and the Origin of the Hawaiian Endemic Genus Lipochaeta (Compositae)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Rabakonandrianina, Elisabeth
    Infrageneric relationships of Lipochaeta were assessed by way of a controlled crossing program that produced 14 intrasectional and 5 intersectional hybrid combinations involving the two sections Aphanopappus and Lipochaeta. Results from uniform culture and hybridization studies confirm that specific differences involving many traits such as leaf shape, the number of disk floret lobes, and achene morphology have a genetic basis. Fertility data based on pollen stainability and achene set of some of the hybrids revealed that members of the same section are highly interfertile, whereas the two sections are extremely well isolated from each other reproductively. Cytogenetic evidence suggests that this isolation is due primarily to a difference in the ploidy level of the two sections and that section Lipochaeta, with n = 26, has an allopolyploid origin from a IS-paired taxon similar to a diploid Lipochaeta and an unknown II-paired taxon in the extra-Hawaiian genus Wedelia. Chromosome counts for three diploid species and one tetraploid variety are reported for the first time.
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    Sandalwood in the Cook Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Sykes, W.R.
    Reports of sandalwood, Santalum sp., being present on Rarotonga in the early part of the nineteenth century are presumably incorrect, because no specimens from there have ever been found. However, sandalwood does grow on Mitiaro to the northeast and is here named as a new variety of S. insulare Bert. Within this widespread French Polynesian species the Cook Island plant is closest to the type variety from the Society Islands.
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    Vegetative Anatomy of the Hawaiian Species of Santalum (Santalaceae)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Stemmermann, Lani
    Wood and foliar anatomy of the Hawaiian representatives of the genus Santalum are described. No consistent differences in wood anatomy between taxa were found; however, significant anatomical differences in foliar anatomy were observed. Characteristics of leaf anatomy that are of taxonomic value are the bottle-shaped adaxial epidermal cells of S. haleakalae, the papillate nature of the abaxial leaf surface in several taxa, and the presence of adaxial as well as abaxial stomata in S. ellipticum.
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    Observations on the Genus Santalum (Santalaceae) in Hawaii
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Stemmermann, Lani
    Some of the taxonomic problems of species of Santalum in Hawai'i are resolved by proposing one new taxon and two combinations. These are based on observations of the genus in the field, herbarium studies, and anatomical differences found.
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    Titanophora marianensis sp. nov. (Nemastomataceae, Rhodophyta) from Guam
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Itono, Hiroshi ; Tsuda, Roy T.
    Titanophora marianensis sp. nov. (Gigartinales) from Guam is distinguished from other previously known species of the genus by having leading axes that branch repeatedly and by the absence of gland cells.
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    Historic and Prehistoric Avian Records from Easter Island
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Carr, Gail Speaker
    Eight avian taxa were identified in Recent archeological faunal material from Easter Island in the southeastern Pacific. Three of these had not previously been reported for the island, raising to 20 the total number of bird species known from this locality.
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    Epitonium millecostatum and Coralliophila clathrata: Two Prosobranch Gastropods Symbiotic with Indo-Pacific Palythoa (Coelenterata: Zoanthidae)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Robertson, Robert
    Two little known prosobraneh gastropods, the wentletrap Epitonium millecostatum (Pease 1860-1861) and the muricacean Coralliophila clathrata (A. Adams 1854), are both obligate symbionts of the colonial zoanthid sea anemone Palythoa. Data are given on the taxonomy of both gastropods, and on their symbioses in the Maldive Islands, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Neither species had been reported previously from any of these regions, and the known range of C. clathrata is also extended to Zanzibar and the Marquesas Islands. Coralliophila sugimotonis Kuroda 1930 is shown definitely to be a synonym of C. clathrata. Palythoa sloughs off nematocysts and zooxanthellae in its mucus, and both gastropods ingest this;·they do not ingest the Palythoa tissue or polyps, which contain sand grains. The feces of the Epitonium consist chiefly of discharged nematocysts; while those of the Coralliophila consist chiefly of remnants of zooxanthellae. Both species presumably digest the mucus. The Epitonium also digests the zooxanthellae, thereby being in part herbivorous, and the Coralliophila apparently also digests the nematocysts. Both species have small eggs and a planktotrophic larval stage lasting about a month or more. The larvae of the two species must have well-developed settlement responses to Palythoa, which is sparsely and patchily dispersed in shallow water. Frequencies of the adult gastropods with Palythoa are low.
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    34:1 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01)
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