Pacific Science Volume 19, Number 1, 1965

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Revision of the Genus Pandanus Stickman, Part 18. Pandanus of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, and of the Anamba Islands, Indonesia
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) St. John, Harold
    From Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean H. N. Ridley described two species of Pandanus. As these were never illustrated, they are given a revised treatment here. Previously Martelli had described a species from the same island, based solely upon fragmentary staminate material. The material of these species in the herbarium at Singapore has been studied anew and is here reported upon.
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    Revision of the Genus Pandanus Stickman, Part 17. Species, Mostly New, in Borneo, Cambodia, and Vietnam
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) St. John, Harold
    In Borneo there are numerous known species of Pandanus, while in Cambodia there are but few. Several new ones from those regions are here proposed. Two new ones from Vietnam are also included, as are expanded descriptions and new locality records for certain species of Borneo and of Vietnam.
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    New Monogenetic Trematodes from Hawaiian Fishes, I
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) Yamaguti, Satyu
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    A Study of Stomatal Structure in Pandanaceae
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) Tomlinson, P.B.
    Many species of Pandanaceae have unspecialized stomata. In species of Pandanus there is a range of stomatal structure involving increasing elaboration of papillae arising from subsidiary and neighbouring cells so that guard cells, which are otherwise constant in structure throughout the family, are increasingly provided with a canopy of papillae which, together with sinking of the stomatal apparatus, produces an outer stomatal chamber. In the most specialized stomata this chamber is itself virtually occluded by lobed papillae. Freycinetia may show significant differences from Pandanus. This linear trend of specialization can often be partly or wholly demonstrated on a single individual because stomata are always unspecialized on the first scalelike leaves of each renewal shoot, thereafter being increasingly specialized on subsequent leaves until the maximum potential elaboration characteristic of the species is realised on foliage leaves. This is briefly discussed in relation to taxonomy, physiology, and ecology.
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    Chromosome Numbers in Characeae from the South Pacific
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) Hotchkiss, Arland
    This study of a total of 18 collections represents the first sampling of chromosome numbers in the charophytes from New Caledonia, Fiji, and Samoa. Chromosome counts were obtained for the first time for material of Lamprothamnium (Chara) succinctum, and the count supports the transfer to the genus Lamprothamnium. Chromosome counts consistent with earlier reports are those of 14 for the dioecious taxa included in Chara corallina (Chara australis, Protochara australis, Chara fulgens) by Wood, and 18 for Nitella acuminata. Not in accord with some earlier reports are the counts of 18 for Nitella hyalina, 18 for Nitella pseudoflabellata (including N. mathuata), 18 for Nitella furcata, and 28 for Chara fibrosa. The presence of somatic pairing of chromosomes is noted in Chara fibrosa, and the extent and importance of polyploidy in the charophytes is recalled.
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    The Characeae of Fiji
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) Wood, R.D.
    In June and July, 1961, the writer made a concentrated search for Characeae in Fiji. Whereas these plants had previously been known only from outlying islands of Ovalau and Macuata-i-wai, they were found to be fairly common on the main islands as well and to include five species. The present systematic treatment is based upon the writer's collections and upon the few specimens available from other herbaria.
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    Historic Littoral Cones in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01) Moore, James G. ; Ault, Wayne U.
    Littoral cones are formed by steam explosions resulting when lava flows enter the sea. Of about 50 littoral cones on the shores of Mauna Loa and Kilauea on the island of Hawaii, three were formed in historic time: 1840, 1868, and 1919. Five new chemical analyses of the glassy ash of the cones and of the feeding lava show that there is no chemical interchange between molten lava and sea water during the brief period they are in contact. The littoral cone ash contains a lower Fe2O3 / (Fe203 + FeO) ratio than does its feeding lava because drastic chilling reduces the amount of oxidation. A large volume of lava entering the sea (probably more than 50 million cubic yards) is required to produce a littoral cone. All the historic littoral cones were fed by aa flows. The turbulent character of these flows and the included cooler, solid material allows ingress of sea water to the interior of the flow where it vaporizes and explodes. The cooler, more brittle lava of the aa flows tend to fragment and shatter more readily upon contact with water than does lava of pahoehoe flows.
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    19:1 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1965-01)
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