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ItemS. E. K. Papaʻai : a study of the survival of maoli beliefs in mele of the nineteenth century( 2003)According to John Ka'imikaua, noted kumu hula and keeper of Moloka'i hula traditions, the 'aikapu system was not the first religious system of the maoli 'native' people of these islands. Ka'imikaua says that it was the religious system brought by Polynesians of the South. These new traditions supplanted the traditions of those who were already established in these islands. In 1778, another wave of immigration and cultural change began with the arrival of Captain James Cook of the British navy. Just over forty years after the arrival of Captain Cook, the 'aikapu system was supplanted by Christianity. Cultural and religious changes like these occur every day in every part of the world. It is very common to hear someone say in conversation or to read that the 'aikapu ' and maoli religion were abolished in 1819 by Ka'ahumanu after the death of Kamehameha. Most accept this as fact without question. This may be an easy way of conceptualizing the changing religious order in Hawai'i at that time, but this generalization of the situation makes it inaccurate. When we take a closer look at our history, we realize that events of the past occur in shades of gray rather than in black and white. We realize that maoli beliefs were carried in various forms throughout the centuries and even up until the present day.