Pacific Science Volume 38, Number 3, 1984

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    38:3 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07)
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    Novelties in Lipochaeta (Compositae). Hawaiian Plant Studies 119
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) St. John, Harold
    Included are descriptions, based on morphology, of 12 new species and three new varieties of Lipochaeta (Compositae) of the Hawaiian Islands.
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    Hawaii's Alectorioid Lichens
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Smith, Clifford W.
    Four species of alectorioid lichens are reported from Hawaii. Bryoria smithii (= Alectoria sandwicensis) is the most common. Two species, B. furcellata and Pseudephebe minuscula, are new records to the islands. The presence of B. lanestris is confirmed. Alectoria altaica and A. jubata are not present as previously reported. All species are confined to elevations above 2000 m on Maui and Hawaii. Their ecologies are discussed and a key to their identification is provided.
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    Filamentous Fungal Populations of Hawaiian Beaches
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Dunn, Paul H. ; Baker, Gladys E.
    Heterotrophic micro-organisms were studied on three Hawaiian beaches-two of volcanic origin and one of carbonate. The volcanic beaches consisted of coarse particles with little organic matter. The carbonate beach consisted of coarse-to-fine, light-colored particles and contained more organic material than the volcanic sands. Fungi populations of the three beaches differed noticeably in their tolerance to temperature, salinity, and pH. In vitro testing of selected fungi showed wide tolerance to salinity levels, less tolerance to the high temperature of black sand, and no adaptation to alkaline pH levels. Heterotrophic microbe populations were greatest in the supratidal zone, except for the intertidal bacterial population of the black sand beach. In the subtidal black zone of the carbonate beach, only bacteria were well established, actinomycetes were absent, and fungi were few. Fifty percent of the fungi were common to any two of the three beaches. Zonal decrease in numbers at all three beaches was attributed to differences in submergence time.
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    Reproductive Cycle of the Pacific Bonito, Sarda chilensis (Scombridae), from Northern Chile
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Goldberg, Stephen R. ; Mussiett C, Donaldo
    The Pacific bonito, Sarda chilensis, spawns from spring to late summer off northern Chile. The smallest female in spawning condition was 410mm standard length (SL); the smallest spermiogenic male, 390mm SL. Females spawn more than one batch of eggs per season.
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    A New Species of Serranid Fish of the Genus Anthias from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Randall, John E. ; Ralston, Stephen
    The serranid fish Anthiasfucinus is described from 15 specimens collected from steep rocky slopes at depths of 168-198 m in the Hawaiian Islands and 214-237 m at Johnston Island. It is unique among the known species of the genus in lacking vomerine teeth. Other diagnostic characters are 9 soft anal rays (ofthe Indo-Pacific species of Anthias only A. ventralis has this count); 16 dorsal soft rays; 15 or 16 pectoral rays (all unbranched); lateral line with a distinct angle at anterior end of straight peduncular part, the pored scales 34-36 (only A. boulengeri from the Gulf of Oman has this number of pored scales); membranes of dorsal fin not incised; no prolonged dorsal spine (fourth or fifth spines barely longest); and a distinctive head color pattern of alternating stripes of violet and yellow.
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    A Freshwater Bryozoan, Hyalinella vaihiriae Hastings (1929), from Hawaiian Prawn Ponds
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Bailey-Brock, Julie H. ; Hayward, Peter J.
    The occurrence of Hyalinella vaihiriae Hastings (1929) in ponds for culturing freshwater prawns at Kekaha, Kauai, represents a new record to the Hawaiian fauna and the second record of a phylactolaemate bryozoan from the islands. This represents the fourth record of this species which was first described from a lake at 427 m elevation on Tahiti. The known distribution also includes E. Australia and Utah, United States. The bryozoan was found growing in a broad band to a depth of 60 cm attached to vegetation around the banks of the ponds. Specimens collected in both May and August 1982 contained statoblasts, but they were much more numerous in the August material. In the laboratory adult prawns were observed to feed on the bryozoan which grew more luxuriantly in ponds holding a reduced standing crop of prawns. The prawn ponds at Kekaha, Kauai, are no longer operational so the exact status of this species in Hawaii is not known.
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    A Redescription of Periclimenes yaldwyni Holthuis (Brachycarpus audouini Bate, 1888, Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) and Its Occurrence in Australian Waters
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Bruce, A.J. ; Cropp, D.A.
    The pontoniine shrimp Periclimenes yaldwyni Holthuis is recorded for the first time from Australian waters and is redescribed and figured in detail to augment the original description and illustration provided by Bate (1888) as Brachycarpus audouini. The presently available data on carideans (eight spp.) occurring in both Australian and New Zealand waters are summarized.
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    Telemetric Investigation of Vertical Migration of Nautilus belauensis in Palau
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Carlson, Bruce A. ; McKibben, James N. ; DeGruy, Michael V.
    Sonic transmitters coupled to depth-sensitive strain gauges and attached to shells of Nautilus belauensis in Palau, Western Caroline Islands, established net vertical movement between 85 and 467 m, and lateral movement of about 3km over a period of 7 days and nights. Generally, the animals were found in deep water during daytime and moved to shallower water at night.
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